China: 1913-33 Junk & Steam Train: Postage & Postal Savings Stamps

China stamps Junk Issues 1913-1933 China stamps Junk Issues 1913-1933

The new definitive stamps of 1913 for all of China were a set of 19 values to the $20, comprising three designs, the first, a junk for the values to 10c, the second, a reaper for the 13c-50c values, the third, the Hall of Classics, for the dollar values. The values from c to 10c, and sometimes the set as a whole, are commonly described as the 'China junk design' and the c-10c all feature a steam train on a long bridge behind the junk. These stamps were initially intended for use throughout China but serious regional fluctuations in the value of the paper currency created a need for regional overprints later in some provinces.

There were three printings of these definitives and they are known under the following names:
1913 : London Printing
1914 : First Peking Printing
1923 : Second Peking Printing

This article on the junk design stamps has five sections:

** Distinguishing and listing the basic stamps in the three printings.
** National surcharges on the above, valid in much of the country.
** Provincial overprints for: Manchuria (Kirin & Heilungkiang), Sinkiang, Szechwan, Yunnan.
** Postal Savings stamps.
** Postal Stationery in the same stamp design: National, followed by Sinkiang & Yunnan.

These five divisions have red title headings at the head of each section.

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Junks: The Three Printings:

The first and quickest feature to check is the presence, or absence, of a fringe (parallel vertical lines) under the curved tablet at the top of the stamp. If there is no fringe, the stamps are Second Peking printing. Stamps with a lightly-drawn fringe are London printing, heavier fringes are First Peking printing. The three types are shown below in order, London, First Peking, Second Peking.

China stamps Junk Issues 1913-1933

Occasionally, it is not 100% clear whether the fringe is London or First Peking; a second test is the pennant (flag) on the top of the RIGHT mast of the junk. In the London printing and also in the Second Peking printing (the one without a fringe), the pennant is long, thin and fluttering. In the First Peking printing, it is not much more than a triangle, as illustrated below:

China stamps Junk Issues 1913-1933 China stamps Junk Issues 1913-1933
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The London Printing, 1913:
Printed by Waterlow, issued in May 1913. Shades are found but these do not appear in most catalogues. Our scan below shows an extra 5c and 7c as examples of the variation in colours that may be found. We have added a separate listing for the particularly marked shade found on the 7c.

China stamps Junk Issues 1913-1933 London Printing

China stamps Junk Issues 1913-1933

London Printing:
c Sepia [ . ]
- ditto - Imperf between vertically (horizontal pair) [ . ]
- ditto - Imperf between horizontally (vertical pair) [ . ]
1c Yellow-Orange [ . ]
- ditto - Imperf between vertically (horizontal pair) [ . ]
- ditto - Imperf between horizontally (vertical pair) [ . ]
2c Bright Green [ . ]
- ditto - Imperf between vertically (horizontal pair) [ . ]
3c Deep Blue-Green [ . ]
- ditto - Imperf between vertically (horizontal pair) [ . ]
- ditto - Imperf between horizontally (vertical pair) [ . ]
4c Deep Scarlet [ . ]
5c Rose-Lilac [ . ]
6c Deep Grey [ . ]
7c Pale Purple [ . ]
7c Violet [ . ]
8c Brownish Orange [ . ]
10c Deep Blue [ . ]
- ditto - Imperf between vertically (horizontal pair) [ . ]
- ditto - Imperf between horizontally (vertical pair) [ . ]

All values may be found overprinted SPECIMEN

Notes about the London Printing:
The 10c of the London Printing is only found in Die I. (Described lower down)
There were no booklets issued containing stamps of the London Printing.
The stamps were printed, we think for all values, with a vertical gutter, providing horizontal interpanneau pairs.
The c, 1c, 2c, 3c, 4c, 5c and 6c are all recorded as existing imperf between stamp and margin.

Waterlow & Sons Salesmen's Samples.
China stamps Waterlow Salesmen's Sample Specimen Junk Issues 1913 London printing

We are unable to provide a complete list of the stamps produced by Waterlow and overprinted WATERLOW & SONS LTD / SPECIMEN, these stamps being used in their representatives' sales books, as examples of the company's printing skills. Although such salesmen's samples are nearly always in colours different to that of the issued stamp in a particulr face value, curiously two of the China salesmen's samples that we have seen appear to be in the issued colour - or very close to it.
The examples that we have seen up to the time of this article, all imperforate, are:

1c in Yellow-Orange (opt in black). Possibly in issued colour. [ . ]
2c in Yellow-Orange (opt in black) [ . ]
2c in Red (opt in black, simple capital letters without serifs) [ . ]
2c in Red (opt in blue, in capital letters with serifs) [ . ]
10c in Blue (opt in black), apparently in the issued colour. [ . ]

Note: The stamp illustrated above is still affixed to part of a page of a salesman's book. It has the folio number printed above it, which helped to identify a style or design during correspondence between the Waterlow company offices and their salesmen.

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The First Peking Printing, 1914:
China stamps Junk Issues 1913-1933 First Peking Printing

China stamps Junk Issues 1913-1933 10c Postal Forgery + Die I & Die II

Dies I and II of the 10c : Die I has a bead in the scroll, as shown. Die II does not.

Postal Forgery : Lithographed as opposed to recess-printed; very poorly-drawn scroll in left margin; '0' of '10' uneven; no serif at foot of 'P' of 'POSTAGE' and other errors. The forgery is Perf 13, whereas issued stamps are Perf. 14. This forgery was produced to defraud the post office, not philatelists.

First Peking Printing:
c Sepia [ . ]
1c Orange-Yellow [ . ]
1c Deep Purple [ . ]
1c Bright Violet [ . ]
2c Bright Green [ . ]
3c Blue -Green [ . ]
4c Scarlet [ . ]
5c Rose-Lilac [ . ]
6c Grey [ . ]
7c Bright Violet [ . ]
8c Brownish Orange [ . ]
10c Deep Blue Die I [ . ]
10c Deep Blue Die II [ . ]

The 1c exists overprinted SPECIMEN

10c Postal Forgery [ . ]

Notes on the First Peking Printing:
The c is known imperforate between stamp and bottom margin.
There are fewer marked shades found than on the London issue but the 3c is found in both Blue-Green and Deep Blue-Green
We have listed the postal forgery here, as it reproduces the fringe of the First Peking printing.
There are three booklets containing junk & train stamps from the First Peking Printing, all rare and fabulously expensive. The booklet panes that come from them are:
1c in a pane of 4 stamps [ . ]
1c in a pane of 6 stamps [ . ]
3c in a pane of 6 stamps [ . ]
5c in a pane of 4 stamps [ . ]
10c in a pane of 4 stamps [ . ]

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The Second Peking Printing, 1923 (except where shown below):
China stamps Junk Issues 1913-1933 Second Peking Printing

Second Peking Printing:
c Sepia [ . ]
- ditto - Imperf between vertically (horizontal pair) [ . ]
- ditto - Imperf between horizontally (vertical pair) [ . ]
1c Yellow-Orange [ . ]
- ditto - Imperf between vertically (horizontal pair) [ . ]
- ditto - Imperf between horizontally (vertical pair) [ . ]
1c Reddish-Violet [ . ]
2c Bright Green [ . ]
3c Blue-Green [ . ]
4c Grey [ . ]
- ditto - Imperf between vertically (horizontal pair) [ . ]
- ditto - Imperf between horizontally (vertical pair) [ . ]
4c Sage-Green (1926) [ . ]
5c Bright Rose-Lilac [ . ]
6c Deep Bright Scarlet [ . ]
6c Chestnut-Brown (1933) [ . ]
7c Bright Violet [ . ]
8c Reddish Orange [ . ]
10c Blue [ . ]

The 4c Grey and 6c Scarlet exist overprinted SPECIMEN

Notes on the Second Peking Printing:
All the junk & train values exist on both Thin and Thick Paper.
There are four booklets containing junk & train stamps from the Second Peking Printing, all rare and only slightly less expensive than the previous issue's. The booklet panes that come from them are:
1c in a pane of 4 stamps [ . ]
1c in a pane of 6 stamps [ . ]
3c in a pane of 6 stamps [ . ]
5c in a pane of 4 stamps [ . ]
10c in a pane of 2 stamps (format unknown)[ . ]
10c in a pane of 6 stamps [ . ]

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China stamps Junk Issues Anti-Bandit chops Second Peking Printing

Anti-Bandit Chops:
Some of the Junk / Reaper / Hall of Classics stamps may be found with 'anti-bandit' chops or controls, applied after some stamps were looted. These anti-bandit chops are normally only encountered on the high values, mostly the Dollar values (the Hall of Classics design). The chops vary in design and colour, depending on where they were handstamped, and, although we have never see one on a junk & train design, it is possible that a few may exist. Shown above is a small piece with a $1 Hall of Classics with violet anti-bandit chop applied at Wuxi (formerly Wuki), with a Second Peking 10c (without handstamp) tied to the same piece.
We are obliged to Garry Francis for his assistance in identifying the town of this anti-bandit chop.

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National Surcharges on First & Second Peking stamps

China stamps Junk Issues : Surcharges Flood Relief 1920 and uprated 1925-1935 China stamps Junk Issues : Surcharges Flood Relief 1920 and uprated 1925-1935
Above: Pair, bottom stamp with stop after 'Ct' omitted; 1920 Flood Relief Fund set/3; 1923 2c/3c; 1930 1c/3c (1st Peking ptg.)

China stamps Junk & Train Issues : Surcharges Flood Relief 1920 and uprated 1925-1935
Above: Various surcharges on Second Peking printing, issued between 1925 and 1935.

1920: Flood Relief Issue (surcharged, in colours shown in parentheses, on First Peking issue)
The Yellow River floods of 1920 created great hardship and the stamps were all issued with a 1c surcharge on the printed value.

1c / 2c Yellow-Green (in red) [ . ]
3c / 4c Scarlet (in blue) [ . ]
5c / 6c Grey (in red) [ . ]

All three stamps exist overprinted SPECIMEN

Typically, postal administrations have issued stamps carrying charity premiums with the charity element expressed separately. However, in this case, the public were charged the original face value for the stamps (2c, 4c or 6c) but they only had the franking value stated on the overprint (1c, 3c or 5c). In most administrations, these stamps would have appeared as a 1c+1c, 3c+1c and 5c+1c.

1923: Surcharged in Red with 'stars' etc. (on First Peking issue)

2c / 3c Blue-Green [ . ]
- ditto - Surcharge Inverted (rare) [ . ]

This stamp exists overprinted SPECIMEN.

1930: Surcharged in Red on First Peking Printing

1c / 3c Blue-Green (in red) [ . ]

1925-35: Surcharged in Red (except where shown) on Second Peking Printing

1c / 2c Bright Green [ . ]
1c / 3c Blue-Green [ . ]
- ditto - No Stop after 'Ct' in surcharge [ . ]
1c / 3c Blue-Green, surcharged in BLACK [ . ]
1c / 4c Sage-Green [ . ]
- ditto - No Stop after 'Ct' in surcharge [ . ]
3c / 4c Grey [ . ]
- ditto - Surcharge Inverted (rare) [ . ]

The 3c/4c Grey exists overprinted SPECIMEN.

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REGIONAL ISSUES : Overprints required due to large regional disparities in the value of paper money.

As many philatelists use older catalogues, we are adopting the older spellings for the four regions which were seriously affected by a local loss of value of the paper currency. The four provinces were Manchuria (also known as Kirin & Heilungkiang), Sinkiang (also known as East Turkestan), Szechwan and Yunnan. For ease of reference, they are scanned below for comparison of the overprints.

China stamps Junk Issues : Surcharges Flood Relief 1920 and uprated 1925-1935

For the three horizontal overprints, the easiest test is the third Chinese character, which is markedly different on the three stamps. Note that the overprint with five vertical characters for Sinkiang are always in BLACK on postal overprints. Five-character vertical overprints in RED are used for Postal Savings stamps, which are covered further down and were not specifically for Sinkiang.
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MANCHURIA Province:
The overprint reads Ki-Hei, which means the provinces of Kirin and Heilungkiang, but they were used throughout Manchuria. The paper currency in Manchuria at the time was worth only about 30% of its value compared to the national rate, which made the overprint necessary in order to prevent opportunists purchasing the stamps in one province and selling them for postage in another.

Inverted Overprints: Genuine inverted overprints are reported in the Ma catalogue for the 1c, 2c, 3c, 5c and 10c which states that there has been speculation that these were deliberately created by someone with considerable authority at the printers, but this has not been proven. Additonally, we have seen a c with inverted overprint, which appears to be from the same stable; other values could also exist. Note that there are also some forged inverted overprints which are occasionally found on the market, but they lack both sharpness and depth of impression.

China stamps Junk Issues : Manchuria Kirin & Heilungkiang provincial overprints including Inverted Overprints

Manchuria Province overprints:
c Sepia [ . ]
- ditto - Overprint Inverted [ . ]
1c Yellow-Orange [ . ]
- ditto - Overprint Inverted [ . ]
1c Reddish-Violet [ . ]
2c Bright Green [ . ]
- ditto - Overprint Inverted [ . ]
3c Blue-Green [ . ]
4c Sage-Green [ . ]
5c Bright Rose-Lilac [ . ]
- ditto - Overprint Inverted [ . ]
6c Deep Bright Scarlet [ . ]
7c Bright Violet [ . ]
8c Reddish Orange [ . ]
10c Blue [ . ]
- ditto - Overprint Inverted [ . ]

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SINKIANG Province:
This province a century ago was sometimes known as East Turkestan, whilst the more modern transliteration of the name is Xinjiang. The reason for the overprints in Sinkiang was not due to the value of the paper money but due to the metal of the silver coinage in use in Sinkiang being of inferior purity. As mentioned higher up, postal overprints are always in Black on the junk & train design. There are three regular series for the publicly issued stamps:

On stamps of the First Peking printing with the overprint measuring 16mms (in height) and the first character misaligned slightly to left.

On stamps of the First Peking printing with overprint now measuring 15.5mms and the first character correctly aligned vertically.

On the Second Peking printing (only in one style, aligned, but exists on stamps printed on both the thin and thick papers).

China stamps Junk Issues : Sinkiang East Turkestan Xinjinag provincial overprints First Peking out-of-line overprints
First Character out of alignment, 1c and both Dies of the 10c (see higher up for detail scan of Dies).

Sinkiang opts on First Peking Printing : 1st character out-of-alignment (1915)
c Sepia [ . ]
1c Orange-Yellow [ . ]
2c Bright Green [ . ]
3c Blue -Green [ . ]
4c Scarlet [ . ]
5c Rose-Lilac [ . ]
6c Grey [ . ]
7c Bright Violet [ . ]
8c Brownish Orange [ . ]
10c Deep Blue Die I [ . ]
10c Deep Blue Die II [ . ]

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China stamps Junk Issues : Sinkiang East Turkestan Xinjinag provincial overprints First Peking aligned overprints China stamps Junk & Train Issues : Sinkiang East Turkestan Xinjinag provincial overprints SPECIMEN First Peking aligned overprints
First Character in alignment, 1c, both Dies of the 10c and the 8c with SPECIMEN overprint.

Sinkiang Opts on First Peking Printing : 1st character in alignment (1916)
c Sepia [ . ]
1c Orange-Yellow [ . ]
1c Deep Purple (1919) [ . ]
1c Bright Violet (1919) [ . ]
2c Bright Green [ . ]
3c Blue -Green [ . ]
4c Scarlet [ . ]
5c Rose-Lilac [ . ]
6c Grey [ . ]
7c Bright Violet [ . ]
8c Brownish Orange [ . ]
10c Deep Blue Die I [ . ]
10c Deep Blue Die II [ . ]

All values exist overprinted SPECIMEN

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China stamps Junk Issues : Sinkiang East Turkestan Xinjinag provincial overprints on Second Peking printing

Sinkiang Opts on Second Peking Printing.

Papers: Of these overprints on the Second Peking printing, the 6c Chestnut-Brown only exists on thick paper. All the other values exist on both thin and thick paper. We have provided two check-boxes, in light green for the thin paper and dark green for the thick paper.

c Sepia [ . ] [ . ]
1c Yellow-Orange [ . ] [ . ]
1c Reddish-Violet [ . ] [ . ]
2c Bright Green [ . ] [ . ]
3c Blue-Green [ . ] [ . ]
4c Grey [ . ] [ . ]
4c Sage-Green (1926) [ . ] [ . ]
5c Bright Rose-Lilac [ . ] [ . ]
6c Deep Bright Scarlet [ . ] [ . ]
6c Chestnut-Brown (1936) [ NO ] [ . ]
7c Bright Violet [ . ] [ . ]
8c Reddish Orange [ . ] [ . ]
10c Blue [ . ] [ . ]

Both the 4c Grey and the 6c Scarlet exist overprinted SPECIMEN

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Sinkiang Airmail handstamps, 1933.
China stamps Junk Issues : Sinkiang East Turkestan Xinjiang Air Mail overprints 1933

In 1932/33, four of the Second Peking issue were handstamped in RED with two Chinese characters meaning 'By Air Mail'. Two of the four values were on the junk & train design.

Airmail Opts on Second Peking Printing (1933)
5c Bright Rose-Lilac [ . ]
10c Blue [ . ]

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SINKIANG : OFFICIAL PERFINS

Many values of the junk and train design are found with a four character perforation, indicating that the stamps were provided to government departments for official mail. The prefins are to prevent their private use.

All three of the regular issues of Sinkiang above (excluding the airmail handstamps) received this security perforation and, in our experience, these perfins seem much scarcer on the 1924 Second Peking printing than on the the 1915 or 1916 issues.

They are found with varying frequency in four orientations:
Normal
Normal but Inverted
Reversed
Reversed and Inverted

Many of these stamps are not as scarce as one might at first imagine, but certain combinations of printing and perfin orientation have not been recorded. One particular point with regard to scarcity is that, amongst the junk & train values, the half cent official is a very scarce stamp in any printing or orientation. In principle, we do not think mint examples of these perfins should exist, except where unlawfully procured, and we do not recall seeing mint examples of any value being offered.

In the April 1986 edition of the Journal of Chinese Philately, Paul Davey produced a chart marking up which values have been reported for all values in relation to both stamp issue and perfin orientation. There may be more recent work on these stamps but we have not seen any. For ease of reference, we shall show the four orientations in a scan and repeat that scan above each listing.

China stamps Junk & Steam Train Issues : Sinkiang East Turkestan Xinjiang Official Perfins Perforations for Government Use

Against each stamp, we provide four check-boxes for the four possible perfin configurations in the order as shown in the scan. Where stamps have not been confirmed as existing in a particular state, we have put 'no' in the appropriate box, but, as these stamps have not, until recently, been the subject of widespread interest, there remains the possibilty of some of the so-far unrecorded types existing. Where no example of a publicly-issued Sinkiang stamp is recorded with an official perfin in any of the four orientations, we have not provided a listing.

Sinkiang Perfins : First Peking printing with first character out-of-line:
c Sepia [ . ] [ no ] [ . ] [ . ]
1c Orange [ . ] [ . ] [ . ] [ . ]
2c Green [ . ] [ no ] [ . ] [ no ]
3c Green [ . ] [ . ] [ . ] [ . ]
4c Grey [ . ] [ no ] [ . ] [ no ]
5c Lilac [ . ] [ . ] [ . ] [ no ]
6c Scarlet [ . ] [ no ] [ no ] [ no ]
7c Violet [ . ] [ no ] [ . ] [ no ]
8c Orange [ . ] [ no ] [ . ] [ no ]
10c Blue [ no ] [ . ] [ . ] [ no ]

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China stamps Junk Issues : Sinkiang East Turkestan Xinjiang Official Perfins Perforations for Government Use

Reminder of Key: We provide four check-boxes for the four possible perfin configurations in the order as shown in the scan above. For stamps not so far recorded in a particular state, we have put 'no' in the appropriate box.

Sinkiang Perfins : First Peking printing with first character now in-line:
c Sepia [ . ] [ no ] [ . ] [ no ]
1c Orange [ . ] [ . ] [ . ] [ . ]
1c Violet [ . ] [ . ] [ . ] [ no ]
2c Green [ . ] [ . ] [ . ] [ . ]
3c Green [ . ] [ . ] [ . ] [ . ]
4c Grey [ . ] [ . ] [ . ] [ . ]
5c Lilac [ . ] [ . ] [ . ] [ . ]
6c Scarlet [ . ] [ . ] [ . ] [ . ]
7c Violet [ . ] [ . ] [ . ] [ . ]
8c Orange [ . ] [ . ] [ . ] [ . ]
10c Blue [ . ] [ . ] [ . ] [ . ]

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China stamps Junk Issues : Sinkiang East Turkestan Xinjiang Official Perfins Perforations for Government Use

Reminder of Key: We provide four check-boxes for the four possible perfin configurations in the order as shown in the scan above. For stamps not so far recorded in a particular state, we have put 'no' in the appropriate box.

Sinkiang Perfins : Second Peking printing with official perfin:
c Sepia [ . ] [ no ] [ . ] [ no ]
1c Orange [ . ] [ . ] [ . ] [ . ]
1c Violet [ . ] [ no ] [ no ] [ no ]
2c Green [ . ] [ . ] [ . ] [ . ]
3c Green [ . ] [ . ] [ . ] [ . ]
4c Grey [ . ] [ . ] [ . ] [ . ]
4c Green [ . ] [ no ] [ . ] [ no ]
5c Lilac [ . ] [ . ] [ . ] [ . ]
6c Red [ . ] [ . ] [ . ] [ . ]
6c Brown [ . ] [ no ] [ . ] [ no ]
7c Violet [ . ] [ no ] [ . ] [ . ]
8c Orange [ . ] [ no ] [ . ] [ no ]
10c Blue [ . ] [ no ] [ . ] [ no ]

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SZECHWAN (Sichuan) Province:
The need for overprints here was again due to the devaluation of the currency in use in that province. Only two of the junk & train design were overprinted.

China stamps Junk Issues : Szechwan Sichuan Junk & Train overprints 1933

Szechwan (Sichuan) overprints on Second Peking issue.
1c Yellow-Orange [ . ]
5c Bright Rose-Lilac [ . ]

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YUNNAN Province:
Once again, the need for overprints here was due to the devaluation of the currency.

China stamps Junk Issues : Yunnan Junk & Train overprints 1926

Yunnan overprints on Second Peking issue, 1926
c Sepia [ . ]
1c Yellow-Orange [ . ]
1c Reddish-Violet [ . ]
2c Bright Green [ . ]
3c Blue-Green (thick paper)** [ . ]
4c Sage-Green (1926) [ . ]
5c Bright Rose-Lilac [ . ]
6c Deep Bright Scarlet [ . ]
7c Bright Violet [ . ]
8c Reddish Orange [ . ]
10c Blue [ . ]

** Papers: All the Yunnan stamps are on thick paper. The 3c is also found on thin paper [ . ]
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POSTAL SAVINGS STAMPS (on junk & train design)

Collecting in any area of philately outside the regular stamps used for postage often entails much research. Specialized catalogues which have covered the subject are frequently out-of-print and hard to acquire. The internet does not always fill the void.

Postal savings stamps were typically issued to help people with only small amounts of spare cash to save on a weekly or monthly basis, often by purchasing stamps which might be stuck onto a card or into a booklet. Once full, these could perhaps be redeemed or converted into savings certificates, shares or some other document with a monetary value.

China wished to encourage thrift and savings and postal savings stamps were introduced in 1919. The junk & train stamps were overprinted; only 5c and 10c rate stamps were required. These stamps were affixed to a form and, when the value reached 1 Dollar, an entry was made in the saver's passbook. In theory, they were not sold mint but applied directly onto the forms by a postal clerk, but mint examples can be found.

The savings stamp overprints closely resemble in style the five-character overprint on Sinkiang postage stamps but are instantly recognizable as different because the savings overprints are in RED, whereas the postal overprints on the 5c and 10c are Black. So far as we are aware, only First Peking printings of the 5c and both Die I and Die II of the 10c ever received these postal savings overprints. These three stamps are also found with numerous local validating handstamps, several of which are scarce.

This is not a field in which we have very limited knowledge. We are supplying high quality scans where possible, along with our best efforts at interpretation of some of the local handstamps, but the listing should be treated with great caution, as it is likely to contain several errors, whether of illustrations or listings.

There are two catalogues of which we are aware which examine these stamps, a 1976 catalogue by Marsh & Williams and the Chang catalogue, whose listings vary to some degree. We have leaned fairly heavily on these in producing the listing below.

The junk & train design for savings stamps were superseded in 1933 by Sun Yat Sen issues.
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Postal Savings Stamps

China stamps Junk & Train design : Postal Savings stamps China 1919

5c without handstamp [ . ]
10c Die I without handstamp [ . ]
10c Die II without handstamp . ]

Had it not been for the chaos and banditry at that period of history, particularly in rural areas of China, the listing might have ended there, but stocks were regularly stolen by bandits and local handstamps, known as anti-bandit chops, were applied in several locations. They are frequently hard to decipher. No dates are normally assigned to the anti-bandit chops, probably because few reliable records survive.

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Postal Savings Stamps : Anti-Bandit Chops

Chekiang
China stamps Junk & Train design : Postal Savings stamps China Chekiang

Chekiang Anti-Bandit Chops on Postal Savings:
5c with chop in Purple [ . ]
10c Die I with chop in Purple [ . ]
10c Die II with chop in Purple [ . ]

5c with chop in Black [ . ]
10c Die I with chop in Black [ . ]
10c Die II with chop in Black [ . ]

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Chihli
China stamps Junk & Train design : Postal Savings stamps China 1919 Chihli Anti-Bandit Chop

Chihli Anti-Bandit Chops on Postal Savings:
5c without handstamp [ . ]
10c Die I without handstamp [ . ]
10c Die II without handstamp . ]

This location is only in Chang, a catalogue which does not distinguish between Dies I and II of the 10c. We have provisionally listed both Dies.

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Fukien
China stamps Junk & Train design : Postal Savings stamps China Fukien

Fukien Anti-Bandit Chops on Postal Savings:
5c with chop in Red [ . ]
10c Die I with chop in Red [ . ]
10c Die II with chop in Red [ . ]

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Honan
China stamps Junk & Train design : Postal Savings stamps China Honan

Honan Anti-Bandit Chops on Postal Savings: (unlisted in either catalogue, location to be confirmed, 10c value assumed.)
5c with chop in Purple [ . ]
10c Die I with chop in Purple [ . ]
10c Die II with chop in Purple [ . ]

The above 5c stamp came into our hands marked as a Honan chop. We have no corroboration for this.

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Hopeh
China stamps Junk & Train design : Postal Savings stamps China Hopeh

Hopeh Anti-Bandit Chops on Postal Savings:
5c with chop in Purple [ . ]
10c Die I with chop in Purple [ . ]
10c Die II with chop in Purple [ . ]

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Kansu
China stamps Junk & Train design : Postal Savings stamps China Kansu

Kansu Anti-Bandit Chops on Postal Savings:
5c with chop in Black [ . ]
10c Die I with chop in Black [ . ]
10c Die II with chop in Black [ . ]

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Kwangtung
China stamps Junk & Train design : Postal Savings stamps China Kwangtung China stamps Junk & Train design : Postal Savings stamps China Kwangtung
On the 5c stamp, the top chop (paler 2 characters) is the Kwangtung anti-bandit chop and the 'small silver coin' handstamp, showing with what currency the stamp was purchased, is below and more firmly struck. On the 10c stamp, there is only the anti-bandit chop.

Kwangtung Anti-Bandit Chops on Postal Savings:
5c with chop in Black [ . ]
10c Die I with chop in Black (right-hand scan) [ . ]
10c Die II with chop in Black [ . ]

5c with chop in Black and additional chop in black 'small silver coin' (left-hand scan) [ . ]
- ditto - but now with only the 'small silver coin' chop

10c Die I with chop in Black with additional chop in black 'small silver coin' [ . ]
- ditto - but now with only the 'small silver coin' chop

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Peiping
China stamps Junk & Train design : Postal Savings stamps China Peiping

Peiping Anti-Bandit Chops on Postal Savings:
5c with chop in Purple [ . ]
10c Die I with chop in Purple [ . ]
10c Die II with chop in Purple [ . ]

5c with chop in Black [ . ]
10c Die I with chop in Black [ . ]
10c Die II with chop in Black [ . ]

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Shanghai
China stamps Junk & Train design : Postal Savings stamps China Shanghai

Shanghai Anti-Bandit Chops on Postal Savings:
5c with chop in Blue [ . ]
10c Die I with chop in Blue [ . ]
10c Die II with chop in Blue [ . ]

5c with chop in Violet [ . ]
10c Die I with chop in Violet [ . ]
10c Die II with chop in Vilet [ . ]

5c with chop in Black [ . ]
10c Die I with chop in Black [ . ]
10c Die II with chop in Black [ . ]

Chang lists a further handstamp applied to both the 5c and 10c at Shanghai, perhaps additional to the anti-bandit chop, perhaps on its own. We are unclear about this and have not attempted to list it.

We appreciate that this section is quite lacking in both quality and quantity of scans and explanations, but we have only recently taken an interest in these postal savings stamps and lack the knowledge and material to provide a better listing. We hope it will nevertheless prove of some assistance for anyone even newer than us to this field of philately.

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POSTAL STATIONERY : Junk & Train Design : National Issues
The junk and train design was used for many issues of postal stationery, postcards only (PSC). There were several printings of some values and we have used illustrations wherever possible to display the differences. Whereas most values of the stamps are found with three styles of 'fringe' (London, 1st Peking & 2nd Peking), postal stationery cards in any one combination of colour and denomination are only found in one style, except for one possible colour trial.

Double cards are found, with message half and prepaid reply half attached, both for inland and international mail. They are printed (and folded) such that the 'stamp' sides of the two halves cannot be displayed together.

1915 :
China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards 1915 1c Junk & Train China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards 1915 1c Junk & Train
Left Card: Chinese character 'pien', arrowed, has wide spacing between horizontal lines. On right-hand card, it is narrow.

Other than the 1c as a possible trail colour (see below), the 1c Green cards are in the London style:
1c Green PSC, WIDE left-hand character 'Pien', vertical Chinese inscription 43.5 mms in length. [ . ]
- as above - but vertical Chinese inscription 45.5 mms in length. [ . ]

1c Green PSC, NARROW left-hand character 'Pien', vertical Chinese inscription 43.5 mms in length. [ . ]
- as above - but vertical Chinese inscription 45.5 mms in length. [ . ]

The Higgins and Gage catalogue also states, under the 1915 heading, that this card is also found with one of the Peking printings of the stamp, rather than the London printing. The Han catalogue lists a 1926 1c Green (in amongst the listings of the 1c Orange) and suggests it may be a trial printing; we suspect that these are references to the same card. We have not seen it but provide a check-box. We do not know whether this is a First or Second Peking type to which these catalogues allude, although the Second Peking 'fringeless' style seems the more likely to us:

1c Green PSC with a Peking printing of the stamp [ . ]

On double cards, message and reply, both halves carry clear instructions in French and Chinese of their function. The message (outward) card is inscribed 'Carte Postale avec Rponse Paye' (Postcard with Paid Reply) whilst the reply half simply reads 'Carte Postale - Rponse' (Postcard - Reply). We illustrate below the two halves of a 1c double card to serve as as an example for all such double cards. The scan displaying the reply half has been reduced by about 40% in size.

China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards 1915 1c Junk & Train China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards 1915 1c Junk & Train

1c + 1cGreen PSC, WIDE left-hand character 'Pien', vertical Chinese inscription 43.5 mms in length. [ . ]

1c + 1c Green PSC, NARROW left-hand character 'Pien', vertical Chinese inscription 43.5 mms in length. [ . ]

We have not encountered these reply cards with the Chinese inscriptions 45.5 mms in length, nor have we seen any listing for them.

China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards 1915 4c Yunnan Junk & Train

These 4c Red cards were for international mail. They have stamps in the First Peking style.

4c Red PSC with patterned border [ . ]
4c + 4c Red PSC with patterned border [ . ]

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Postal rates were increased in July 1917 and the 1c Green psc were sold for several months with a c stamp affixed to make up the new 1c rate. In 1918, new cards at the 1c rate were issued.

1919 :
China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards 1919 1c Junk & Train
China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards 1919 1c Junk & Train China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards 1919 1c Junk & Train China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards 1919 1c Junk & Train

Left Scan : 4th Character sloping strongly to the right.
Centre Scan: 4th Character sloping only gently; tops of 3rd, 4th & 6th characters closed.
Right Scan: 4th character sloping only gently; tops of 3rd, 4th & 6th characters open at top left.

1919 : 1c Blue PSC : The 6 Chinese character at top are in blue on a white background. For the 1c Blue with the same characters in white on a blue background, see 1924 issue.

1c Blue PSC - as left-hand detail scan [ . ]
1c Blue PSC - as centre detail scan [ . ]
1c Blue PSC - as right-hand detail scan [ . ]

1c + 1c Blue PSC - as left-hand detail scan [ . ]

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c.1922/23 :
China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards 1922/23 1c Orange Junk & Train China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards 1922/23 4c Red Junk & Train

There are several printings of the 1c Orange cards. This first issue is distinguishable by the very thin long lines in the form of the letter 'T', the down-stroke of which forms the vertical line of partition between message and addressee.
The new 4c Red cards differ most notably from the previous issue by having no patterned border.

1c Orange PSC (thin 'T') [ . ]

1c+1c Orange PSC (thin 'T') [ . ]

4c Red PSC (without patterned border) [ . ]

4c + 4c Red PSC(without patterned border) [ . ]

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c.1924:
China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards 1924 1c Blue Junk & Train China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards 1924 6c Red Junk & Train

The 1c of this issue now has the top panel of 6 characters in white on a blue background.
The 6c (a new value) has the French inscription longer than the Chinese inscription.

1c Blue PSC (white chars. on blue ground) [ . ]

1c + 1c Blue PSC (white chars. on blue ground) [ . ]

6c Red PSC (longer French inscription) [ . ]

6c + 6c Red PSC [ . ]

At some date prior to the introduction of the 2c psc in 1926/27, some 1c psc were sold over post office counters with an additonal c junk & train stamp already affixed, in order to uprate to the new 2c tariff.

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China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards Junk & Train China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards Junk & Train

For many years, the Chinese inscription on the 'T' down the middle, which explains where the name of the addressee and the address should go, had been written in the 'English' style, with the addressee's given name preceding the family name. This was corrected to the Chinese style which involved switching the 8th and 9th characters. We use (E) and (C) as per the scans above in the listings.

On the 1926/27 1c and 2c cards, the 'English' word order is used. For the 1930 and 1931/32 issues, the Chinese word order is adopted.

1926/27:
China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards 1926/27 Junk & Train China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards 1926/27 Junk & Train

Three Features of the 1926/27 cards:
1. On single cards, the top inscriptions in French and Chinese are now of equal length.
2. The 'T' is thicker than in the 1922/23 issue (Note: the 2c only exists with thick 'T)
3. 'English' word order in the vertical characters, indicated in listing with (E) .

1c Orange PSC (E) with all three 1926/27 features as above [ . ]

1c + 1c Orange PSC (E) with features 2 & 3 above - French heading has NO STOP and is 72 mms long [ . ]
- ditto - but French heading only 69 mms long [ . ]

1c + 1c Orange PSC (E) with features 2 & 3 above - French heading has STOP (and is 68 mms long) [ . ]

2c Green PSC (E) with all three features above [ . ]

2c + 2c Green PSC (E) with features 2 and 3 above [ . ]

A further (scarce) PS card came out at around this time, a single 6c Red with the French and Chinese inscriptions now the same length. It has no vertical downstroke to the 'T' nor any vertical Chinese characters in the design.

6c Red PSC with French and Chinese inscriptions of equal length. [ . ]

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1930:
Three Features of the 1930 cards (no scans provided):
1. The top inscriptions in French and Chinese are of equal length.
2. The 'T' is thicker than in the 1922/23 issue (Note: the 2c only exists with thick 'T)
3. 'Chinese' word order in the vertical characters, indicated in listing with (C) .

These cards are therefore identical to the 1926/27 cards, except for the switching of the 8th and 9th vertical characters, illustrated higher up, putting family name above given name. We have not seen any need to provide separate scans for the 1930 issue.

1c Orange PSC (C) with all three 1930 features as above [ . ]

2c Green PSC (C) with all three 1930 features above [ . ]

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c. 1931/32:
China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards 1931 Junk & Train China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards 1932 Junk & Train

The cards are now inscribed in Chinese only.

1c Orange PSC inscribed in Chinese only [ . ]

2c Green PSC inscribed in Chinese only [ . ]

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POSTAL STATIONERY CARDS WITH PROVINCIAL OVERPRINTS : SINKIANG
The First Peking postage stamps have two forms, with the first character of the overprint either out-of-line or in-line. In the postal stationery cards, the variation is less marked, the only difference being that the first character appears slightly sloping. We have decided not to apply this level of detail in our listing below.

The overprints on the cards are, like on the stamps, a form of control, restricting their validity to Sinkiang Province.

Sinkiang 1915 :
China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards Sinkiang 1915 1c China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards Sinkiang 1915 4c Junk & Train

The 'sloping first character' variation of the overprint is apparent in these scans on the 1c card.

1c Green PSC [ . ]
1c + 1c PSC Green [ . ]

4c PSC Red PSC (with patterned border) [ . ]
4c + 4c Red PSC (with patterned border) [ . ]

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Sinkiang 1923-26 :
China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards Sinkiang 1923-26 4c China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards Sinkiang 1923-26 6c Junk & Train

Shown above are the 4c Red and 6c Red types. The Han catalogues also lists a 1c Orange in the style with thin lines forming the 'T', illustrated and described higher up. It is rare and we have no illustration for it.

1923: 1c Orange PSC (with thin 'T') [ . ]

1924: 4c Red PSC (without patterned border) [ . ]
1924: 4c + 4c Red PSC (without patterned border) [ . ]

1926: 6c PSC Red PSC [ . ]
1926: 6c + 6c Red PSC [ . ]

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Sinkiang 1927 :
China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards Sinkiang 1927 1c China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards Sinkiang 1927 2c Junk & Train

Above: The 1c and 2c, both in the (E) style.

As with the national postal stationery cards, the 1927 issues have 'given name' above 'family name', styled (E) in the listings.

For convenience, we have shown again below scans of the (E) and (C) formats.
China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards Junk & Train China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards Junk & Train

1c Orange PSC (E) [ . ]

1c + 1c Orange PSC (E) [ . ]

2c Green PSC (E) [ . ]

2c + 2c Green PSC (E) [ . ]

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Sinkiang 1930 :
As with the national postal stationery cards of 1930,the Sinkiang versions of 1930 now have 'family name' above 'given name', styled (C) in the listings. No scans provided.

1c Orange PSC (C) [ . ]

2c Green PSC (C) [ . ]

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Sinkiang 1932 :
China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards Sinkiang 1932

1932: 1c Orange PSC inscribed in Chinese only. [ . ]

1932: 2c Green PSC inscribed in Chinese only. [ . ]

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POSTAL STATIONERY CARDS WITH PROVINCIAL OVERPRINTS : YUNNAN Yunnan was somewhat later in having its postal stationery overprinted, commencing around 1926/27.

Yunnan 1926/27:
China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards Yunnan 1926/27 1c China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards Yunnan 1926/27 2c

China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards Yunnan 1926/27 4c China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards Yunnan 1926/27 6c

1926/27 Types with English-style given name before family name in Chinese text.
1c Orange PSC (E) [ . ]

1c + 1c Orange PSC (E) [ . ]

2c Green PSC (E) [ . ]

2c + 2c Green PSC (E) [ . ]

4c Red PSC (E) [ . ]

4c +4c Red PSC (E) [ . ]

6c Red PSC (E) [ . ]

6c + 6c Red PSC (E) [ . ]

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Yunnan 1931:
China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards Yunnan 1930 2c

1930 Types with Chinese-style family name before given name in Chinese text.
1c Orange PSC (C) [ . ]

2c Green PSC (C) [ . ]

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Yunnan 1932 :
China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards Yunnan 1932 1c China stamps Junk & Train : Postal Stationey Cards Yunnan 1932 2c

1932: 1c Orange PSC inscribed in Chinese only. [ . ]

1932: 2c Green PSC inscribed in Chinese only. [ . ]

From May 20th 1932, the 2c cards above were usually sold with an extra c junk & train adhesive attached to bring the rate up to 2c.

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SEMI-OFFICIAL POSTAL STATIONERY. China issued three sets of semi-official cards, in 1918, 1927 and 1929. The 1918 and 1929 cards did not use the junk & train design for the 'stamp', but the 1927 set of four postcards did.

The set was issued for the 20th annniversary of the Bank of Communications and all the cards are franked with a 2c in a pale yellow-green colour, quite different from the normal 2c deep green employed for the 2c cards. The initial intention was to sell these at post offices, although it seems that they were, instead, presented as gifts at the last moment. We believe they retained their postal validity.

The cards have views on the back, three showing various views of banks, one showing a port scene with a steam locomotive. There are tram tracks on one of the bank views. We show one stamped side, the four views and the envelope in which they were presented. Han reports that only 10,000 sets were produced.

China stamps Junk & Train : semi-official Postal Stationery Cards Bank of Communications 1929 China stamps Junk & Train : semi-official Entier Postal Bank of Communications 1929

China stamps Junk & Train : semi-official Postal Stationery Cards Bank of Communications 1929 China stamps Junk & Train : semi-official Ganzsache Bank of Communications 1929

China stamps Junk & Train : semi-official Postal Stationery Cards Bank of Communications 1929 China stamps Junk & Train : semi-official Entier Postal Bank of Communications 1929

2c semi-official PSC in Deep Rose : View of Port & Steam Locomotive [ . ]
2c semi-official PSC in Grey-Green : View of a bank [ . ]
2c semi-official PSC in Deep Terracotta : View of bank portal [ . ]
2c semi-official PSC in Deep Bright Magenta : View of bank and street with Tram Tracks [ . ]

End of article : see our List of Articles (link at left or below) for other studies on the stamps of China related to railways.

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