Hejaz Railway Revenue & Postage Stamps : Part II
Under various post-Ottoman authorities in the former Ottoman Empire

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Hejaz Railway Revenues : Part II : The break-up of the Ottoman Empire . . . .
. . . . Creation of Iraq, Palestine & Transjordan, Saudi Arabia (Hejaz/Nejd), Syria & Lebanon.

In Part I of this study we provided a brief introduction to the building and funding of the Hejaz Railway and examined the Hejaz Railway revenues issued under the rule of the Ottoman Empire from the early years of the 20th century up to 1918. Part I extended past 1918 only to include those stamps, mainly postal, issued within what became the Republic of Turkey.
LINK TO PART I article . . . (opens in a new tab).
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In this, Part II of the 2-Part study, we examine Hejaz Railway fund stamps which were NOT issued under Ottoman rule. This includes a few rarely-seen revenues that were issued by occupying powers in the Italo-Turkish War of 1912 and the Balkan War of 1912/13, but the article is dominated by stamps in and after World War I. Initially, these are stamps issued by military and, later, civilian authorities of occupying powers in former Ottoman territory, often using Ottoman stamps surcharged for revenue and, very occasionally, postal purposes.

The occupying powers chose to continue to exact taxes under the Ottoman Hejaz Railway fund legislation and numerous new issues appeared in the many newly-formed countries that followed the dismantling of the Ottoman Empire. An extended period of foreign administrative control of several of these new countries was rubber-stamped through League of Nations mandates from 1922/23 onwards.

This article also covers Hejaz Railway tax stamps, and their postal surcharges, in the nascent and independent Hejaz / Nejd, later Saudi Arabia, a wartime ally in the Arabian Peninsular of the victors.

Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenues H.J.Z. Forgery Perf 11½ Palestine postage stamps Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenues H.J.Z. Forgery Perf 11½ Palestine postage stamps
Lebanon: 1921: part of a Power of Attorney with a block/10 Hejaz Railway revenues + A Kingdom of Hejaz 50q revenue of 1922
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Historical Background :
This introduction is drawn from several sources in order to provide a brief understanding of the roles played by some of the 'main players' during the period of these stamp issues. Brevity in such a politically complex region necessarily involves a degree of simplification.

During the two years that followed the end of the First World War in 1918, and in accordance with the secret, and towards the Arabs mendacious, Sykes–Picot Agreement signed between Britain and France during the War, much of the Middle East was divided up between these two countries. Most prominently in regard to this Agreement, the assurances given to the Arabs over Damascus and Syria were not honoured.

The Allies' plan to retain control over large areas of Asia Minor, ratified at the Treaty of Sèvres, were thwarted by a Turkish nationalist uprising under Kemal Ataturk in Anatolia and Eastern Thrace between 1920 and 1922/23, which forced the Allies to cede (back) significant tracts of these former Ottoman territories to the Turkish nationalists. The 1923 Treaty of Lausanne, the settlement which followed this uprising, known as the Turkish War of Independence, expanded substantially the borders of modern Turkey.

This left the British and French in occupation only of the eastern shores of the Mediterranean and its substantial hinterland, extending as far as Iraq. The League of Nations had largely rubber-stamped these arrangements, although it had specified that an aim of the occupying powers should be to establish the road-map for self-determination by the peoples of these territories, a condition that was in democratic conflict in Palestine with the 1917 Balfour Declaration, which supported the establishment of a 'national home for the Jewish people' in Palestine, even though the Jews were a minority in that region.

The League granted the French a Mandate for Syria, which included the territory of present-day Lebanon and Alexandretta in addition to modern Syria. France set about dividing up the area in order to strengthen their position, treating their area very much like a protectorate.

The British were granted a Mandate for Mesopotamia (now Iraq) and also a Mandate for Palestine, which was later divided into Mandatory Palestine and the Emirate of Transjordan. The British administered their area more through soft power, in part by appointing pliant royal rulers.

Much of the Ottoman Empire's possessions in the Arabian Peninsula became the Kingdom of the Hejaz, which the Sultanate of Nejd conquered following a successful military campaign, leading over time to the creation of Saudi Arabia. . Other parts of the Arabian peninsular, notably Yemen, were also included in the various League of Nations arrangements but they do not concern us here.

Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps First Series Imperf Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps First Series Imperf Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps First Series Imperf Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps First Series Imperf
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Background to the Philately :

Ottoman Public Debt Adminstration (O.P.D.A.) / Administration de Dette Publique Ottomane (A.D.P.O.) . .
. . Debito Pubblico Ottomana / ADPO in Arabic image / Osmanlı Kamu Borç İdaresi


In the background to all Ottoman and post-Ottoman revenue stamps from 1881 until the end of the League of Nations mandates, the last of which, Palestine, only came to an end after World War II, there is a taxation arrangement known as the Ottoman Public Debt Administration (O.P.D.A.). The French equivalent is A.D.P.O. Most documents in the occupied or, as they became, mandated territories bear stamps overprinted with one of these two sets of initials. You can skip this (turquoise-green framed) section if you are just interested in the stamps without the unusual financial background that obtained.

Background to the Debt:
War with Russia in 1878 led to a major diminution in the Ottoman Empire's power and accelerated the descent towards insolvency into which the Empire had been steadily sliding for over two decades.

The country had debts to local individuals and to Western European banking and business interests. In discussions in November 1879 between the state and its local creditors, an agreement was reached whereby selected state taxes were redistributed immediately to creditors within the Empire.

Observing this, and 64 years before the creation of the International Monetary Fund, ....
. . . . foreign creditors agreed to a similar, but more intrusive, solution. By a decree of December 20, 1881, the Ottoman Public Debt Administration was formed, an organization of European creditors who became entitled to a large percentage of state tax income from a number of sources, such as alcohol, tobacco and salt. The terms of the agreement even entitled the foreign creditors to set up their own administrative offices to oversee the process of distribution of these taxes. which in time came to employ thousands of bureaucrats.

Ottoman revenue stamps issued under the auspices of the Ottoman Empire usually carry inscriptions only as to the purpose of the tax, e.g. theatre tax, salt tax etc., and the value in Piastres, with the distribution of those taxes between the Ottoman Empire and European creditors being reserved for later calculation in O.P.D.A. offices. It is only in the post-1918 period outside the boundaries of the former Empire that we witness the production of revenue stamps that are surcharged O.P.D.A. or A.D.P.O. with the debt in this later period collected overtly, perhaps because any Ottoman sensibilities no longer needed to be observed.

One's instinct, although we have not established it as fact, is that none of the income from these taxes after 1918 was disbursed to the Ottoman Empire's successor, the Republic of Turkey, but rather that it was all retained by the occupying powers in the newly-acquired territories. Whether all of this income was distributed amongst the private creditors or some was kept back for administrative salaries or for the benefit of the French or British treasuries, may have been a question whose answer the authorities liked to keep as murky in the 1920s as it is to us now.

Practices in the 'Lost Territories' :
The Italo-Turkish War (1912), Balkan Wars (1912/13) and World War I (1914-1918) all led to extensive loss of Ottoman Empire territory in Europe, Africa and the Middle East. The smaller conflicts led to some loss of land (and consequently of some tax revenue) but it was the First World War which led to massive loss of territory, only part of which was recovered through the Turkish War of Independence.

In general, both before and after 1918, very few Ottoman Hejaz Railway stamps received a 'debt' surcharge, although there had been an exception back in 1912 when, in areas of Libya controlled by the Italians, Hejaz Railway revenue stamps had been overprinted 'Debito Pubblico Ottomana' (Ottoman Public Debt). The revenue from these re-purposed Hejaz Railway stamps was presumably not destined for the railway.

Naturally, Ottoman debt obligations were not passed on to Hejaz / Nejd / Saudi Arabia, an independent state from 1916, but it is proper to record that Turkey continued to honour the historic debt of the Ottomans, making the final repayment in 1954, but there is no Hejaz Railway element to these later repayments to Ottoman creditors by the Turkish Republic.

As mentioned above, after World War I, it was mainly the lands bordering on the Eastern shores of the Mediterranean that came under European administrative control. As the debts due were almost entirely to Western European banks and commercial interests, the reinstitution of the collection of taxes in those territories under the 1881 Agreement in the post-Empire period is unsurprising. Setting aside a brief period of rule in Iraq, the countries of interest for the A.D.P.O. after 1918 are Palestine, Transjordan, Syria and Lebanon (Grand Liban).

In all four territories, many Ottoman tax laws were retained and the revenue collected. This included revenue stamps purportedly in aid of the Hejaz Railway, in some cases using overprints on Ottoman stamps for a brief period, but mainly through the production of new stamps or by adapting non-Ottoman revenue stamps from several sources.

ADPO in Arabic image ADPO in Arabic image
An example of the much more evident collection of taxes to pay the Ottoman foreign debt, here a 1921 Jaffa Court document regarding inheritance with a 3 Pi O.P.D.A. stamp alongside a 6 Pi. Hejaz Railway revenue.

It is very unusual for governments anywhere to collect and redirect the revenue from any particular tax to a specific cause. We do believe that, due to the religious purpose of the railway, albeit not totally without consideration also of its military appeal, the Ottoman Government probably did broadly ensure that funds it received from the Hejaz Railway stamps funded the railway and only the railway, especially as it is reported that there was even a surplus of funds at times. However, we have not been able to establish whether, during the Ottoman period, the O.P.D.A. agreement was extended to include income from the Hejaz Railway Tax. The tax was introduced 23 years after the agreement was signed and we are not familiar with such clauses as may have covered the introduction of new taxes.

We have also not been able to establish whether, after 1918, the British and French authorities chose to continue to collect taxes under the Hejaz Railway legislation for any purpose beyond funding general administrative costs and perhaps pooling it with other repayments under the Ottoman Debt agreement. The same lack of clarity surrounds the revenue raised between 1922 and 1943 through the Hejaz Railway Tax in Saudi Arabia.

Some sections of the Hejaz Railway in Syria and Jordan were repaired and continue to operate today but the railway was never fully re-opened and any plans to re-open it could probably have been classed as moribund by around 1925 with much of the line abandoned without serious thoughts of any revival from as early as 1920. Essentially, governments like raising taxes and are rarely in a hurry to abolish them, even when they have clearly become an anachronism.

As in the Part I article, our catalogue-style listings for Revenue Stamps are in Green text, whilst our
Postage Stamp listings are printed in Blue and also framed in blue boxes.

Whilst many of the post-Ottoman Hejaz Railway revenues on the market are comprised of bespoke new designs and are reasonably easy to identify, most of the immediate post-war issues are overprints / surcharges on Ottoman revenues where the Hejaz Railway element of the overprint is often not very different to the overprints applied for other revenue purposes. As an aid, the Arabic for Hejaz / Hijaci is shown below:

Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps First Series Imperf

Index : Further political background is provided in the introduction to several of the 'by country' listings below. There are internal page links in the left panel for quick navigation within this webpage (the Part II article). Please note that the links at left are alphabetical but the article itself is arranged by political groupings in the following order:

Palestine, followed by Transjordan.

Syria,
followed by Grand Liban (incorporating Alaouites, Alexandretta & Lebanon).

Saudi Arabia
(and Hejaz / Nejd)

Other (on Ottoman stamps)

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Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenues H.J.Z. Forgery Perf 11½ Palestine postage stamps
c.1910 The Great Aman Bridge on the Hejaz Railway, View #33 in the Dimitri Tarazi & Fils postcard series (detail)

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PALESTINE

Taxation Background :
It is reported that from March 1918 in the British zone, as some of the chaos of war was eased, taxes again became payable, the economy having seen a revival following the introduction of the more stable Egyptian currency. By June of that year, the British were able to re-establish repayments under the Ottoman Public Debt.

Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps :
Both primitive type-set stamps (occasionally with a surcharge) and Palestine postage stamps with surcharges were produced for the Hejaz Railway fund in Palestine. We have had access to catalogues produced by Bale, Wallerstein (1987 edition) and John Barefoot whilst producing this article. There are marked differences in both the content and organization into sets between the catalogues, which makes cross-referencing difficult.

The Revenue Reverend's online listing provides cross-referencing of the various catalogues for all the Palestine revenue stamps, including those for the Hejaz Railway. We have found it very useful and it can be accesssed here, then scroll a little way down that page to find the link to the page with the table (opens in a new tab):
Additionally, we have copied his table, by permission, along with the accompanying notes, at the end of this section on Palestine.

Digression : General Observations on Catalogue Listings of Revenues in the region.
The contradictions which his table reveals is unsurprising. Revenue stamps have historically attracted fewer philatelic researchers than postage stamps. Add to this the wartime upheavals and the post-war changes, often short-lived whilst a new permanent taxation regime is established, plus the often very limited surviving quantities of Hejaz Railway provisionals for study and it is no surprise that many questions still remained unanswered over a century later. This scenario applies to most countries in Part II of this article.

We are not alone in recommending healthy scepticism where a stamp appears in catalogues, or even in several catalogues, if no-one can produce one, or at least point to a pictorial record of one. Equally there may well be one or two more entirely new Hejaz Railway revenues yet to be reported, especially in the 1918-1922 period. There will almost certainly be some unreported varieties.

Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenues : Groupings :
Bale breaks the issues down into SIX groups of simple type-set stamps and one set of surcharged postage stamps, compared to Wallerstein's FOUR type-set groups plus one for surcharged postage stamps. Whilst we have broadly followed the Bale groupings, we have omitted a small number of stamps listed by Bale which are not corroborated elsewhere or appear to be listed elsewhere but belonging to a different 'set'.

We recognize that most collectors will never have extensive access to these stamps and for our listings we have therefore, in most cases, ignored orientations of the watermark (which Wallerstein lists) and perforation differences, whilst we have reduced shade listings down to a few major variants.

For the simple type-set stamps, there are very visible font / spacing differences between all but two of the issues. The exception is distinguishing between Bale's (and our) 3rd and 6th sets. However, these can be easily separated by marked differences in their 'easy-to-see' watermarks.

Palestine Currency (Egyptian) : 10 milliemes (Mill, mil) = 1 Piastre (P.T., p.t.)

Identifying the SIX types, as per the Bale catalogue (other catalogues group the stamps differently):
Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps
Bale numbers shown in Yellow. Simple differentiation features described below:

1st Set : Imperf : H.J.Z. ('J' aligned with H and Z).
2nd Set : Imperf : H.J.Z. ('J' below H and Z)
3rd Set : Perf : H. J. Z. widely-spaced; J. aligned; watermark Scrolled Letters GR and ornate crown
4th Set : Perf : H.J.Z. close-spaced; J. not aligned.
5th Set : Perf : H.J.Z. close-spaced; J. not aligned; smaller letters than 4th set. (only the 2PT & 5PT vals exist in this font.)
6th Set : Perf : Similar to 3rd Issue but watermark now plain G.R. and simple 'flattened' crown.

First Set :
Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps First Series Imperf Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps First Series Imperf Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps First Series Imperf

General Notes on First Set :
One of the two Imperforate sets. Printed on watermarked paper (British 'Royal Cypher' with scrolled GR and ornate crown). The watermark is known upright, inverted and sideways but not all orientations have been reported for all values. Generally printed in a dull grey-green. Wallerstein and Bale are in broad agreement for this first set.

Palestine : First Set : Bale 100-105

5 mills Dull Green [ . ]
5 Mill (surch. in black) / 2 p.t. Dull Green [ . ]
1 p.t. Dull Green [ . ]
1 p.t. / 2 p.t. Dull Green [ . ]
2 p.t. Dull Green [ . ]
5 p.t. Dull Green [ . ]

Wallerstein also lists a 5 p.t./2 p.t. but we think this may well be an error for 5 Mill / 2 p.t. which the same catalogue does not list.

Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps First Series Imperf Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps First Series Imperf
Part of a Jerusalem Court document in which a mother admits to owing her son 1000 Egyptian Pounds and commits to repaying him in instalments. Witnessed by two people from a village near Jerusalem. The detail scan shows two of the Hejaz Railway Fund stamps, the 5 p.t. from the First Set, the 20 p.t. from the Second Set.

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Second Set :
Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Second Series Imperf
Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Second Series Imperf Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Second Series Imperf Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Second Series Imperf Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Second Series Imperf Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Second Series Imperf
The final scan shows the large '5' and small '5', encoutered only on the 5 mil. values. The pair on the left in the upper scan both have a large figure '5'.

General Notes on Second Set :
The second of the two Imperforate sets. Printed on watermarked paper (British 'Royal Cypher' with scrolled GR and ornate crown), the watermark known upright, inverted and sideways but not all orientations reported for all values. The majority are printed in Green to Bright Green but shades are found from Deep Green to Emerald-Green. Wallerstein combines the stamps in Bale's 2nd & 4th sets into a single grouping.

Palestine : Second Set : Bale 106-114

5 mil Green (large '5') [ . ]
- ditto - Small '5' [ . ]
5 mli Green (typesetting error, see footnote) ** [ . ]

5 Mill / 2 p.t. Green (surch. in black) [ . ]

5 m-m / 50 p.t. (Black opt, illustrated in Barefoot catalogue) [ . ]

1 p.t. Green [ . ]
(the Roman 'I' for '1' is standard, but only on this issue)

2 p.t. Green [ . ]
- ditto - Figure '2' omitted (only in Bale, see footnote) [ . ] ***

5 p.t. Green [ . ]

5 / 3 p.t. Green (sheet composition error) with MANUAL SURCHARGE to 5 p.t. (see extra scans below) [ . ]

20 p.t. Green (only in Bale, but seen by us, see scan above) [ . ]

50 p.t. Green (only in Bale, but seen by us, see scan above) [ . ]

5 m.m / 50 p.t. Green (only in Bale, not seen by us) [ . ]

1 L.E. Green (only in Bale, not seen by us) [ . ]

**
We have not seen the 'mli' error on the 5 mil on this issue, though we have seen it for the 4th set, q.v., but it is listed in Bale; corroboration would be welcome.

*** Figure '2' omitted not seen by us; it presumably comes from within a sheet with figures '2' present on the other stamps.

Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Third Series
Palestine Hejaz HJZ Railway Revenue Stamps Third Series

Above is a Magistrates' Court document from Jenin, with 10 Hejaz Railway Fund stamps. All should be 5 P.T. but one stamp in the 5 P.T. sheet had the incorrect value '3' for '5' and this document has manuscript correction of the error in a pair with normal. This sheet error was probably corrected at an early stage of the printing as very few are known; indeed this is said to be the only known example of a corrected error on a document. Not listed in any of catalogues that we have seen.
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Third Set :
Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Second Series Imperf
The shades mentioned below are all shown in the above scan. Errors such as misperforations are not included in our listings.

General Notes on Third Set :
As mentioned higher up, this issue differs from the 6th set principally by watermark, which is Royal Cypher for this issue (scrolled letters GR and ornate crown). Normal, Inverted and Sideways watermarks are known.
'M' or 'Mil' and letters P.T. are in upper case. Our old Bale lists these in three groups, Perf 11, Rough Perf and Perf 10½ but our listing ignores perforation measurements.

Palestine : Third Set : Bale 115-126

5 Mil Bright Green [ . ]
- ditto - Pale Olive-Green [ . ]
1 P.T. Bright Green [ . ]
- ditto - Pale Olive-Green [ . ]
2 P.T. Blue [ . ]
- ditto - Dark Blue [ . ]

Bale lists three further values in this same set, none of them seen by us, as follows: a 2½ Mil, a 5 Mil and a 1 P.T. The 2½ Mil and 5 Mil are also in Barefoot; the 1 P.T. is in both Wallerstein and Barefoot.
From this point, due to the large number of unavailable images, we discontinue black-backed text boxes representing missing values amongst the scans.

2½ Mil Red [ . ]
5 Mil Red [ . ]
1 P.T. Red [ . ]

There may additionally be a 5 P.T. Green belonging to this 3rd Set; the listings lack sufficient precision to establish this. For the present, we have not seen enough circumstantial evidence to include a provisional listing of such a stamp.
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Fourth Set :
Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Fourth Series
The strip/4 above shows (right stamp) the 'mli.' for mil.' variety. The left stamp of the strip/4 has a missing stop after 'H' ; there are numerous damaged letters and missing stops associated with the 4th series in particular. We have not extended our listing to include them.

General Notes on Fourth Set :
Another issue with Royal Cypher watermark, which again can be found Normal, Inverted and Sideways. Perforating was as careless as the typesetting on this issue with very narrow examples of stamps being quite common. The fourth set appears to have generated the most complex listings amongst these Palestine Hejaz Railway revenues and we are by no means confident that our list is accurate or that a few of the stamps that we have listed below for the 4th set exist at all.

Palestine : Fourth Set : Bale 127-135

5 mil Green to Deep Green [ . ]
5 mil Turquoise-Green [ . ]
1 P.T. Green [ . ]
1 P.T. Reddish-Vermilion to Scarlet [ . ]
- ditto - Deep Rose to Rose-Magenta [ . ]
2 P.T. Green (not seen by us) [ . ]
2 P.T. Blue (not seen by us) [ . ]

There are a large number of major shade variations in the 1 P.T. 'reds' above; we have reduced them down to two broad groups.

Some catalogues seem inconsistent in their use of upper case and lower case letters for the face value. This has made it unclear to us which stamps belong to the 4th set, especially with regard to the following values:

1 P.T. Green or 1 p.t. Green - or both

2 P.T. Green or 2 p.t. Green - or both

Also whether the 5 p.t., 20 p.t. and 50 p.t. in the listing below should read P.T. rather than p.t. in some or all cases.

1 p.t. Red [ . ]
2 p.t. Green[ . ]
5 p.t. Green [ . ]
20 p.t. Green [ . ]
50 p.t. Green (not in Bale but in Wallerstein and Barefoot) [ . ]
1 L.E. Green (not in Bale but in Wallerstein and Barefoot) [ . ]

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Fifth Set :
Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Fifth  Series

General Notes on Fifth Set :
A simpler group of just three basic stamps with smaller lettering than all the others. Although we have not listed perforation varieties such as 'rough perfs' and varying gauges between 10½ and 11½, we have made an exception here for one stamp. Normally, stamps in this set are Perf 11½ x 11½ but Bale reports a significantly different Perf 11 x 14 for the 2 P.T. Green.

Palestine : Fifth Set : Bale 136-138

2 P.T. Green [ . ]
- ditto - Perf 14 x 11 [ . ]

2 P.T. Blue [ . ]

5 P.T. Yellow-Brown [ . ]

Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Fifth  Series Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Fifth  Series

Above is a curiosity; a fragment of a 1923 legal document with a Hejaz Railway Fund 5th Issue 2 P.T. Green with an offset (mirror image) on the gummed side. This appears to have confused the clerk, who was perhaps working in poor light and probably an Arabic speaker, who, it would seem, must have moistened the front of the stamp in error and found that the stamp seemed to have no gum, as it would not affix to the document.
His solution was to get just one small corner of the Hejaz Railway stamp affixed, face down, by sticking the O.D.P.A. stamp on top of that one corner. He provided the Hejaz stamp with a little extra support by intertwining a couple of its perforations with a couple of perforations of the O.D.P.A. stamp. The back of the Hejaz stamp, which is facing outwards on the document, still has full gum! The Hejaz Railway stamp has somehow survived in this delicately-attached state for nearly a century without suffering any significant damage.

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Sixth Set :
Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Sixth Series
A court document, which is the source of our scan below of the 50 P.T. value.

Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Sixth Series Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Sixth Series

General Notes on Sixth Set :
The only issue with the simple block-lettered G v R and plain flattened crown watermark. All examples that we have seen have waterwark sideways (to left or right) but Wallerstein lists some upright and inverted examples. As usual, there are some shades but those that we have seen on this issue have generally been less eye-catching than on the earlier issues.

Palestine : Sixth Set : Bale 139-147a

5 Mil Green [ . ]
1 P.T. Green (not in Bale, not seen by us, but in Wallerstein & Barefoot) [ . ]
1 P.T. Red [ . ]
2 P.T. Blue [ . ]
5 P.T. Orange-Yellow [ . ]
10 P.T. Purple [ . ]
25 P.T. Silver [ . ]
50 P.T. Blackish-Gold [ . ]

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Rough Perforations :
Bale is assiduous in providing a separate listing of stamps known to be found with rough perforations on all four of the perforated issues. We show below three examples of such stamps, all from the Sixth Issue, but rough perforating is not particularly interesting, usually just the result of perforating too many sheets at a time, resulting in the pins failing to punch out the holes fully or cleanly on the bottom couple of sheets.

Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Sixth Series
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Palestine H.J.Z. - 2 p.t. Stamp produced by TYPEWRITER:
Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Typewriter Produced Stamp on Court Document
Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Typewriter Produced Stamp on Court Document

Shown above is the only known example of a typewriter-produced HJZ revenue on an official court document, which has a 1985 Martin Marco certificate of authenticity. The document is dated 1921 and has, on the back, a further 1 P.T. Hejaz Railway revenue (from the 4th set), tied by a Jaffa Court cancellation).

Palestine : TYPEWRITER-produced stamp : Bale 139-147a

2 p.t. (typewritten) in Black on unwatermarked Greyish Paper [ . ]

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Issued for the SYRIAN ZONE of PALESTINE :
We have been unable to identify the geographical limitations or political arrangements behind this issue.

Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Typewriter Produced Stamp on Court Document

Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamp produced for the SYRIAN ZONE of PALESTINE

Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamp : SYRIAN ZONE of PALESTINE
c.1920 10 p.t. in Deep Blue A.D.P.O. revenue stamp with, additionally, inscription in Arabic 'Hidjaz Railways' [ . ]

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H. J. Z. Surcharges on Palestine POSTAGE STAMPS :

General Notes on Postage Stamps with H.J.Z. Surcharge :
There are two principal settings of the surcharge:
Setting 1 : H.J.Z. measures 8 mms.
Setting 2 : H.J.Z. measures 11 mms

Some catalogues describe and identify stamps in both printings with reference to serifs on the letter H.J.Z. but we have yet to see any value where this is necessary for identification purposes, but such stamps may exist. For the present we identify simply by the width of the top line of the surcharge (Setting 1 or 2) and the face value of original stamp and its surcharge.
There is a font variety found on some values, smaller letters P.T., which occur, to our knowledge, only on stamps of Setting 2. We have not attempted to list these but have provided a scan lower down to illustrate the difference.

Palestine Postage Stamps with H.J.Z. Surcharge Bale 201-211

Stamps from Setting 1 :
Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenues H.J.Z. surcharges on Palestine postage stamps Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenues H.J.Z. surcharges on Palestine postage stamps
Examples of stamps from Setting 1 (H.J.Z. 8 mms wide), at right one with inverted surcharge. We have provided larger scans than usual above and have also increased the brightness of the right-hand stamp, in order to show the surcharge more clearly. Its true colour is the same as the stamp next to it.

We list stamps in Setting 1 (8 mms.) first, surcharge in Black unless stated :
5 m-m / 5m Orange [ . ]
1 P.T. / 1p Indigo (surcharge in Red) [ . ]
2 P.T. / 2p Olive [ . ]
- ditto - No Stop after 'J' [ . ]
10 P.T. / 5p Deep Purple (surcharge in GOLD) [ . ]
- ditto - Surcharge Double [ . ]
- ditto - Surcharge Inverted [ . ]
10 P.T. / 5p Deep Purple (surcharge in SILVER) [ . ]
P.T.25 / 5m Orange (in Bale only, un-confirmed) [ . ]

Stamps from Setting 2 :
Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenues H.J.Z. surcharges on Palestine postage stamps Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenues H.J.Z. surcharges on Palestine postage stamps
Examples of stamps from Setting 2 (H.J.Z. 11 mms wide), the right-hand stamp with marked shift of alignment to the right of new value, '2 P.T.'. We have not listed varieties of this nature.

Below are the stamps in Setting 2 (11 mms.), surcharge in Black (on all values) :
1 P.T. / 2p Olive [ . ]
- ditto - Surcharge Double (Barefoot catalogue) [ . ]
2 P.T. / 5m Orange [ . ]
- ditto - Surcharge Double, One Inverted (Barefoot) ** [ . ]
P.T. 10 / 5m Orange [ . ]
- ditto - Surcharge Inverted [ . ]
P.T.25 / 5m Orange [ . ]
P.T.50 / 5m Orange [ . ]
50 P.T. / 5m Orange (not in Bale, but in Wallerstein and Barefoot) ** [ . ]

** We have assumed that both the stamps marked ** above are from Setting 2 but this requires confirmation.
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Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenues H.J.Z. surcharges on Palestine postage stamps
Varieties (all from Setting 2): 1 P.T. / 2p No Stop after 'Z'. . . P.T.50 / 5m No Stop after 'J' & No Stop after 'H'.

Varieties from Setting 2 (11 mms.)
1 P.T. / 2p Olive : Surcharge Double [ . ]
1 P.T. / 2p Olive : No Stop after 'Z' (see scan) [ . ]
1 P.T. / 2p Olive : Stop after '1' in surcharge (per Revenue Reverend's webpage) [ . ]
2 P.T. / 5m Orange : Surcharge Double [ . ]
2 P.T. / 5m Orange : Surcharge Double, One Inverted [ . ]
P.T. 10 / 5m Orange : Surcharge Inverted [ . ]
P.T.50 / 5m Orange : No Stop after 'H' (see scan) [ . ]
P.T.50 / 5m Orange : No Stop after 'J' (see scan) [ . ]

Other:
Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenues H.J.Z. surcharges on Palestine postage stamps

The scan above shows a pair, the left stamp with normal P.T., the right stamp with variety, letters P.T. smaller. As mentioned higher up, we have not listed these but they are collectable, of course.
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Forgery :
Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenues H.J.Z. Forgery Perf 11½ Palestine postage stamps Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenues Hejaz Railway Forgery Perf 11½ Palestine postage stamps

The scans above show part of a document and, below it, a detail scan of the two Hejaz Railway revenue stamps. In this detail scan, both the original postage stamp on the left and its surcharge are forgeries, the stamp gauging Perf 11½ rather than the Perf 14½ x 14 of the genuine example on the right. The forgery of the original stamp is clear not only from the perforation but also from the much larger Western and Eastern arabic numerals '5' in the corners.

Note on terminology : The expression 'arabic numerals' on its own is ambiguous. The numerals used in most of the world today originate from the Middle East but have changed considerably in form over the centuries. In order to identify the largely-unaltered original arabic numerals, currently used in the Middle East in particular, the expression 'Eastern Arabic Numerals' can be used whilst 'Western Arabic Numerals' identifies those used in much of the rest of world.

Forging a revenue stamp was probably a less risky venture than with a postage stamp, where philatelists would have been likely to spot them quickly. Court documents, on the other hand, tend to be filed away and forgotten quite quickly and kept within a very small circle. Finding genuine and forged examples of the same stamp used alongside one another certainly encourages speculation as to the level of possible connivance in the fraud by one or more officials.
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We are most grateful to Andrew McClellan for permission to reproduce here the cross-reference table already mentioned (and linked to) higher up. In order to make any study of the table a little easier, we have copied below the table any of the explanatory notes that relate to the Hejaz Railway issues.

The Revenue Reverend's table for Hejaz Railway Revenues & Accompanying Notes :

Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenues Hejaz Railway Comparison Table from Revenue Reverend website

Palestine H.J.Z. :The Revenue Reverend's Accompanying Notes for the table above :

Note : H.7 note 2 Bale, Wallerstein and Barefoot all list a 1p on 2p surcharge similar to H7, and Wallerstein additionally lists a 5p on 2p (possibly an error for 5m on 2p). I have not seen either of these. For a similar surcharge on Type B, see H21 below.

Note : H.21, note 2 Wallerstein does not list this series at all. Bale lists all the above values plus the 1 L.E. (=£1), and the 2p with value missing and the 5m with variety mli instead of mil. Wallerstein and Barefoot both list a 5m on 2p surcharge similar to H21. I have not seen any of these.

Note : H.31/4, note 1 Both Bale and Wallerstein list a 20p value from this series; Wallerstein additionally has a 50p and £1, plus a 5m in light blue. Barefoot lists the 20p, 50p and £1. I have not seen any of these values.

Note : H.51/3, note 1 Bale distinguishes clean from rough perforations on the 5m and 1p though I have seen no examples with rough perfs.

Note : H.61-6, note 2 Bale also lists the following: 10p on 5p purple surcharged in silver, 10p on 5p purple with gold surcharge double, 25p on 5m orange. This last may be an erroneous doubling for my H68 below. Both Wallerstein and Barefoot list a 2p on 1p surcharged in red, 50p on 5m (presumably of similar type to H61/66) and double surcharges on both the 1p on 2p and the 2p on 5m. I have not seen any of these.

Note : H.71/6, note 1 Bale, Wallerstein and Barefoot all list a 50p brown but I have not seen this. Wallerstein and Barefoot also list a 1p green (in various shades), but I believe this to be an error for my H52 on Script Cypher watermark.

Note : H/71/6, note 2 All the above values are known with both types of sideways watermark, ie with the crown pointing to either the right or the left (as seen from the back of the stamp), with no apparent difference in scarcity between the two types.
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We complete the Palestine listing with an almost comical example of stamp production, here of a 5th issue 2 P.T. Blue reduced to half width by carefree perforating. Its shrunken state is made more obvious as it sits alongside the standard size O.P.D.A. revenue, which it should match in dimensions.

Palestine Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Sixth Series

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TRANSJORDAN

The Legal Status of Transjordan : Extracts from Wikipedia :
Transjordan became a no man's land following the July 1920 Battle of Maysalun, during which period the British in neighbouring Mandatory Palestine chose to avoid "any definite connection between it and Palestine". Abdullah entered the region in November 1920, moving to Amman on 2 March 1921; later in the month a conference was held with the British during which it was agreed that Abdullah bin Hussein would administer the territory under the auspices of the British Mandate for Palestine with a fully autonomous governing system.

On 21 March 1921, the Foreign and Colonial office legal advisers decided to introduce Article 25 into the Mandatory Palestine, which brought Transjordan under the mandate and stated that in that territory, Britain could 'postpone or withhold' those articles of the Mandate concerning a Jewish national home . . . . . In August 1922, the British government presented a memorandum to the League of Nations stating that Transjordan would be excluded from all the provisions dealing with Jewish settlement, and this memorandum was approved by the League on 12 August.

Abdullah established his government on 11 April 1921. Britain administered the part west of the River Jordan as Palestine, and the part east of the River Jordan as Transjordan. Technically they remained one mandate, but most official documents referred to them as if they were two separate mandates.

Transjordan - Philately
We mainly have the John Barefoot catalogue of British Commonwealth Revenue Stamps by which to date and order the Hejaz Railway tax stamps for Transjordan. A small number of items that we have handled are not in Barefoot, whilst the Barefoot catalogue has many items previously unknown to us, which is a frequent observation about Hejaz Railway tax stamps irrespective of country under discussion. The Barefoot catalogue is a really valuable resource, not always in print, but new editions do appear reasonably frequently and his webpage for the catalogue may be accessed here(opens in a new tab). His catalogue covers all revenues of the British Commonwealth, a huge undertaking!

Transjordan Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps
A document of 1930 from the Transjordan Court of Appeal: 3 x 10p revenue stamps & a 200 milliemes Hejaz Railway Revenue.

Transjordan Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Transjordan Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps
A 1928 Summons to the Court of Transjordan: two 2½ mils. revenues on the front and a 2 p.t. Hejaz Railway Revenue on the back.

Transjordan Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Transjordan Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps
Detail Scans of the two Hejaz Railway revenue stamps from the documents shown above.

1920 : Typeset Issue (with watermark GvR)
20 mils Deep Blue (not seen by us, listed in Barefoot) [ . ]
200 mils Silver (our scan above, not listed in Barefoot) [ . ]
2 p.t. Blue (our scan above and in Barefoot) [ . ]
10 Pi Purple (not seen by us, listed in Barefoot) [ . ]

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The Barefoot catalogue lists the 2 Pi Syria Hejaz Locomotive issue with a Violet overprint, reading 'East of Jordan' in Arabic. We have provided separate scans of the Syrian stamp and a typical Arabic inscription for 'East of Jordan' as used on stamps of the period, which may be similar to that on the reported stamp, which we have not seen. We recommend you read the note about integral arabic text printed in Black on stamps of this design, described in the Syria section below, in order to avoid perhaps mistaking a Syrian issue for this Jordanian issue.

Transjordan Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps East  of Jordan on Syria + Transjordan Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps

c.1923 : 2 pi Steam Locomotive (with violet overprint, as described above) [ . ]
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Another listing by Barefoot, previously unknown to us, is a Turkish Match Tax stamp surcharged in Grey for the Hejaz Railway and further overprint reading 'Government East of Jordan' in Arabic. We have no knowledge as to whether this match tax stamp with only the surcharge for the Hejaz Railway exists.

Transjordan Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps

c.1923 : 9 Pi / 2½ pa (Match Tax) Black & Dull Red (optd. as described above) [ . ]
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The final two Hejaz Railway issues for Transjordan have a close affinity with postage stamps for that country:
Transjordan Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Transjordan Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps

The above pair is stated to have been found on an inheritance document of 1927 in the Moslem Judicial Religius Archive. The original postage stamp is a Saudi (Hejaz) 2p, overprinted for postal use in Transjordan (SG 131). These were issued in 1924 (1342 in the Islamic calendar) but the pair have been further overprinted in thin black typeface to produce a revenue for the Hejaz Railway, we think without any change in face value. See the detail scan for this Hejaz Railway element.

c.1924 : 1 Pi Dark Blue (not seen by us; in Barefoot) [ . ]
c.1924 (used 1927) : 2p Red-Orange Hejaz Railway Revenue [ . ]
- ditto - error of value on original Hejaz stamp - Eastern Arabic '20' for '2' [ . ]

The variety '20' for '2' is present on the right-hand stamp of the pair scanned above, in the bottom right corner.

The final Transjordan revenue issue for the Hejaz Railway employed six Palestine stamps with overprint, none of which we have seen. The composition of these stamps is outlined below:
OVERPRINT AS ON . . Transjordan Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps . . . BUT TOP LINE READS INSTEAD : Transjordan Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps

1925 : Various Palestine stamps in the style shown above, but top line of overprint changed to Hejaz Railway (in Arabic):
5m Orange [ . ]
1 Pi Grey [ . ]
1 Pi Olive [ . ]
5 Pi Purple [ . ]
10 pi Pale Blue [ . ]
20 Pi Magenta [ . ]

Listing above from the Barefoot catalogue.

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SYRIA

Further Background to Syria & Lebanon:
T.E.O. (Territoires Ennemis Occupés) was the standard French abbreviation for Occupied Enemy Territories. As World War I progressed, it encompassed an ever-larger area of the former Ottoman lands, often jointly controlled with Great Britain. Initially these lands were managed as a military occupation, but towards the end of the war and in the immediate post-war period, the administrative duties were progressively transferred to civilian governance and the role of the army reduced.

The French military occupation of the hinterland of Syria did not start well, when the Emir Faisal declared a short-lived Arab kingdom in 1920. The French easily re-established control of all Syria by the end of 1920, both through military power and the British withdrawal of support for Faisal. However, it was clear that the flames of Arab independence would only grow over time. Short though it was, evidence of this brief uprising is to be found in a number of postage stamps issued between January and March 1920, all with arabic overprints which were mainly applied to Ottoman Empire stamps. SG list them as Syria K1-K97. The Hejaz Railway camel and train revenue stamp with violet overprint which we illustrate below is from this brief period of history.

As early as 1920, the French had already partitioned their area of influence, so that a quite narrow coastal strip around Beirut became administratively separated from the rest of the former area of Ottoman Syria, a country today with a land area eighteen times larger than Lebanon. 'Grand Liban', as the French styled their newly-created administrative area, was larger and especially 'taller' than today's Lebanon, stretching south-to-north from Palestine up to the border of the Republic of Turkey. It incorporated the Alaouites Territory, Latakia and the Sanjak of Alexandretta, all to the north of present-day Lebanon. Latakia and the Alaouites Territory were later added to Syria and the Sanjak of Alexandretta, also known as Hatay, was transferred to Turkish rule in 1939.

The presence of a significant Christian population around Beirut was at least in part a reason for separating this region from the rest of Syria but a long-term aspiration for France to maintain a significant presence in the Eastern Mediterranean through control of Grand Liban may well have been the key driver of this policy.

Postage Stamps : Although not strictly required here as a background to Hejaz Railway stamps, this paragraph provides a brief summary of the path to separation of the Lebanon and Syria postal systems. The T.E.O. surcharges on French stamps used in 1919 throughout Syria (which then included Lebanon) were soon replaced by O.M.F. surcharges. These postage stamps too were used throughout Syria and Lebanon until September 1923 at which date the League of Nations French Mandate for the region came into effect. Once the Mandate had been awarded, there followed a three-month period where postage stamps were overprinted 'Syrie / Grand-Liban'. However, in early 1924, the French started issuing postage stamps exclusively for use in the new territory of Grand Liban with stamps in the remaining mandated area being overprinted, and later inscribed, simply 'Syrie'.

Revenue Stamps: The differing French perceptions of the future of Grand Liban compared to the remaining land-mass of Syria is perhaps more clearly seen in its revenue stamps than its postage stamps. As will become clear below, in the 'new' Syria the stamps have a very local feel to them culturally, whereas in Grand Liban the procedure was more colonial and involved surcharging undenominated revenue stamps inscribed REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE.

We look first at all the Hejaz Railway Revenues for Syria, then at the Lebanon.

French Military Occupation Issues (Syria?) :
Syria 1920 Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Locomotive

We have very little information about this stamp, with its very poor scan, other than it is an Ottoman Cigarette Paper tax stamp with a Hejaz Railway revenue handstamped surcharge, which appears to include the letters T.E.O. (Territoires Ennemis Occupés). We have made assumptions as to the likely date and chosen to list it under Syria.

c.1919 : 1 Pi / 5 Pi Red (handstamped surcharge) [ . ]

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Syria T.E.O. Ouest Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Syria T.E.O. Ouest Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps

Ottoman Empire Hejaz Railway Revenue - Overprinted for Syria :
1 pi. handstamped in Violet in Arabic 'Syrian Kingdom' [ . ]
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Syria 1920 Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Locomotive
c.1920 document regarding family inheritance with mention of Damascus and Jerusalem; 4 x 5 pi. locomotive stamps.

Syria 1920 Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Locomotive
Face Values are shown at NE and SE corners . . . Left-to-right : 1 pi, 2 pi, 5 pi.

All values appear to have at least one line of Arabic text in black across the locomotive, but very hard to discern and even harder to read. On the 1pi and 2pi, there appears to be text right through the centre of the locomotive, but on the 5pi, it always appears above the engine. The text appears to be an integral part of the design, viz. not printed separately, as the strength and intensity of the ink of the text seems to match exactly that of the black part of the design.
Note : We have described higher up under Transjordan, but never seen, this design with a violet overprint.

1920 Hejaz Railway Fund Revenue : Locomotive Design in Black on ornate brownish-yellow patterned background:
1 pi Locomotive [ . ]
2 pi Locomotive [ . ]
5 pi Locomotive [ . ]

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Syria 1920 Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Locomotive

1921 : Hejaz Railway Fund Revenue : inscribed 'Contributed to the Hejaz Railway' in Arabic :
6 pi Green : Locomotive [ . ]
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Syria 1920 Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Locomotive Syria 1920 Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Locomotive

c.1922 : Previous issue surcharged in Syrian Piastres in Red :
5 pi /6 pi Green (Locomotive) [ . ]
- ditto - Arabic letter ('r' of 'Suri') omitted [ . ]

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Syria 1920 Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Locomotive
c.1918 Postcard of the 'Hedjaz Railway Station in Damascus' with British military vehicles on the platform.
Syria 1920 Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Locomotive
Syria 1920 Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Locomotive
Curiously, all the stamps above are a different size, design dimensions shown below.

c.1922 : Hejaz Railway Fund Revenues : Steam locomotive in the Hejaz Railway Station, Damascus :
4 pi Pale Blue (39 x 31 mms)[ . ]
10 pi Rose (25 x 27 mms) [ . ]
- ditto - Deep Rose-Red [ . ]
20 pi Blue (30 x 23 mms) [ . ]
150 pi Brown (26 x 22 mms) [ . ]

Note : Three values show Damascus Station and a Steam Train; the 150pi stamp shows a scene from the city of Damascus but we have seen a document clearly stating that it was issued as a part of the set for the Hejaz Railway Fund. The same document suggests that the 6pi Green shown a little higher up was part of a set/5, rather than seeing the four designs here as a set/4, but we believe that the 6pi pre-dates the other four values and have therefore listed it separately.

Syria 1920 Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Locomotive
Detail from a postcard sent to the UK in November 1919, with a further view of the station.
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Syria 1920 Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Locomotive

Syria 1920 Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Locomotive

1923 : The front and back of a fragment of a document, having Syrian A.D.P.O. and Hejaz Railway Revenues on one side and British Consular stamps cancelled in Damascus on the other, alongside a boxed handstamp reading 'Authenticated for use in Palestine / Jerusalem'. This seems to demonstrate administrative co-operation between the French and British authorites in accepting each other's legal documents, very desirable when a formerly contiguous zone of the Ottoman Empire had been divided into multiple nascent countries almost overnight.
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Syria 1920 Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Passports - Locomotive Syria 1920 Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Passports - Locomotive

The above 'stamp' illustration, and the detail provided here, is from the Thoden catalogue of Saudi fiscals and was provided to him by Mr. Aouni Eddriss, who states the stamp is Syrian in origin. It dates from 1934 and is inscribed in Arabic 'Subsidy for the Defence of the Hijazi Railway Line'. We have no other information, nor do we know its exact purpose or status. In addition to the locomotive, the left panel in the stamp appears to show the Hejaz Railway Monument in Damascus. We have provided a postcard view of this monument to accompany the stamp (or perhaps cinderella label?). This monument also features on a number of later Syrian stamps.

1934 : 1q (colour unknown) Steam Train, monument and mosque (revenue stamp?) [ . ]
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Syria 1920 Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Passports - Locomotive

Inscribed the Etat de Syrie, which dates its production between 1924 and 1930, this revenue stamp is for proof of payment of the passport tax.

1924- : Passport Tax, Etat de Syrie : This is NOT a Hejaz Railway revenue stamp.

50 pi Green : Steam Train [ . ]
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GRAND LIBAN (incorporating Alaouites, Alexandretta and Lebanon)

Territoires Ennemis Occupes Zone Ouest T.E.O. Philatelie timbres-poste stamps

The source of the map above is Wikipedia. It may be found on at least two pages, one in English and one in French. The text information on these two pages is markedly different and we therefore provide links to both pages.

Source of Map - English Page : Link to the ENGLISH Wikipedia page (opens in a new tab).

Source of Map - French Page : Link to the FRENCH Wikipedia page (opens in a new tab).

Further Background : Grand Liban :
In the map above, note the dotted line describing an arc running north, roughly parallel to the Mediterranean coast from just north of Acre to Alexandretta (later, Hatay). This strip of land between the dotted line and the sea is inscribed North-West but we think it defines the area that the French called T.E.O. Zone Ouest, although confirmation would be welcome.

Zone Ouest (Z.O.) included the Alaouites (Alawite) territory around Latakia, which is today part of Syria, and the Sandjak of Alexandretta which is now part of Turkey, so that on a north-south axis Lebanon today only encompasses the area from north of Acre to a point a little north of Tripoli.** The border with Syria to the east, though, is almost unchanged since 1920. As both Alaouites and Alexandretta formed part of Grand Liban after World War I, we list them here.
** Note: There are two towns by the name of Tripoli on the Mediterranean coast; the other, probably the better known of the two, is in Libya.
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ALAOUITES (Territory of the ALAWITES)

Lebanon Grand Liban Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Lebanon Grand Liban Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps

We encountered the above in an online sale and have little information about them. They are included here by kind permission of the vendor. They are Ottoman Match Tax revenue stamps surcharged for the Hejaz Railway Fund, affixed to a 1921 document.

Hejaz Railway surcharge TA 2 PS on Ottoman Match Tax revenue [ . ]
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Lebanon Grand Liban Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Lebanon Grand Liban Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps

Undenominated French Colonies Revenue stamp surcharged in Black HEDJAZ / T.A.A. / P. S. 2
1924 : P. S. 2 Orange [ . ]
- no stop both after P and after S (perhaps a very weak stop after P) [ . ]
- ERROR - 'EHDJAZ' for 'HEDJAZ' [ . ]
- ERROR - Figure '2' of surcharge OMITTED [ . ]

The last two errors above are listed in the Abrams & Janton 'French Colonies Revenues' catalogue (Part III), 1989.

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ALEXANDRETTA (also known as Hatay)

The same French Colonies revenue as for Alaouites was surcharged, now reading S.A.A. instead of T.A.A. and, one year on from the Alaouites stamp, it bears a 50% price increase. We have not seen this stamp.

Undenominated French Colonies Revenue stamp surcharged HEDJAZ / S.A.A. / P. S. 3
1925 : P. S. 3 Orange [ . ]

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LEBANON (Grand Liban)

Lebanon Grand Liban Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps

In 1918-20, prior to the introduction of new revenue stamps, Ottoman Hejaz Railway revenues were used, variously handstamped or overprinted as stamps of occupation, either T.E.O. (Territoires Ennemis Occupés) or O.M.F. (Occupation Militaire Française). We find it difficult to be sure exactly where these stamps were current / valid but we have made the assumption that where they are inscribed OUEST or Z.O. (Zone Ouest), they were only intended for use in Grand Liban.

In terms of putting the listing below in order, it seems reasonable to assume that stamps overprinted Z.O. pre-date those overprinted G.L. but we have no precise dates of issue for them.

Hejaz Railway Revenue - For use in the French Occupied Area Territory - West :
1 pi Camel & Steam Train handstamped (boxed) T.E.O. Ouest - handstamp IN BLACK reads Up [ . ]
- ditto - Handstamp reads Down [ . ]

1 pi Camel & Steam Train handstamped (boxed) T.E.O. Ouest - handstamp IN VIOLET (not seen) [ . ]

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There are a few other 1919 Syria/Lebanon overprints/handstamps on this same 1 piastre, none of which we have seen except for a few low quality black & white catalogue illustrations. We are listing them under Lebanon but we are not certain in which parts of the French mandated territories they were in use.

The following stamps are listed both by Abrams & Janton and by Steve Jacques in 'Ottoman Turkish Empire Revenue Stamps of the Hejaz Railway' (2009). All of them have TWO surcharges / overprints / handstamps in a variety of colours but, other than for the first stamp below, we have been unable to resolve from their listings which overprint is in which colour.

Below: We have no issued examples of these stamps and therefore simply provide images of the base stamp and an example of the general style of O.M.F. surcharge applied to the stamp :
Syria 1920 Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Locomotive + a Surcharge similar to : Syria 1920 Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps Locomotive


1919 : P.S. 3 / 1 pi Camel & Steam Train, surcharge is in RED [ . ]

1919 : P.S. 3/ 1 pi Camel & Steam Train surcharged in Red and also h/stamped boxed T. E. O. OUEST in Black [ . ]
- as above but one of the overprints in Violet [ . ]
- as above but one of the overprints in Red [ . ]

We would welcome more information on these stamps. Some of them are reported as having the overprints in different sizes and occasionally with a small overprint in Arabic as well.

We have received information that there is one more surcharge on the the 1 piastre steam train and camel stamp listed in a French Colonies catalogue, a Census stamp with the boxed T.E.O. Ouest handstamp and a quoted face value which we do not understand (on a 1 pi stamp) of PS 1.50 / 20 Pi.

PS 1.50 / 20 Pi ( / 1 Pi ? ) Camel & Steam Train design as described above [ . ]
By its description, a Hejaz Railway revenue stamp but no longer serving that purpose.
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Lebanon Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps T.E.O. Zone Ouest Hedjaz Quittances Lebanon Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps T.E.O. Zone Ouest Hedjaz Quittances

c.1919 : Lebanon (Zone Ouest) Hejaz Railway revenue :
P.S. 2 / 10c France Quittances stamp surcharged Z.O. / HEDJAZ / P.S. / 2 [ . ]
- ditto - Broken Top to 'D' in 'HEDJAZ' (right stamp on detail scan) [ . ]

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c.1923 : Lebanon Quittances stamp as in the previous issue, handstamped as below :
Lebanon France 25c Sower Semeuse surcharge G.L. HEDJAZ Chemin de Fer Railway Revenue

P.S. 2 / 10c Quittances stamp with boxed handstamp as scan above [ . ]
Note : This boxed handstamp converts the stamp from Hejaz Railway use to Notarial Tax use.

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French Postage Stamps converted into Hedjaz Railway Tax stamps :
Lebanon France 25c Sower Semeuse surcharge G.L. HEDJAZ Chemin de Fer Railway Revenue
Document from Beirut, 1921, bearing two Turkish A.D.P.O. stamps, British Consular Stamps, a Palestine Court Fee stamp and a Block/10 Hejaz Railway 2 P.S. / 25c Sower stamps.

Lebanon France 25c Sower Semeuse surcharge G.L. HEDJAZ Chemin de Fer Railway Revenue Lebanon France 25c Sower Semeuse surcharge G.L. HEDJAZ Chemin de Fer Railway Revenue Lebanon France 25c Sower Semeuse surcharge G.L. HEDJAZ Chemin de Fer Railway Revenue Millesime pair Lebanon France 25c Sower Semeuse surcharge G.L. HEDJAZ Chemin de Fer Railway Revenue Error Erreur L.L.
The scan of the 'L.L.' for 'G.L.' variety above is from the auction sales archive of Maison Roumet S.A. (Paris).

c.1920/21 : French regular postage stamps surcharged for Hejaz Railway fund in Grand Liban.
1 P.S. / 25c Blue - Sower [ . ]
- ditto - on G.C. paper (French wartime low-grade grey paper) [ . ]

2 P.S. / 25c Blue - Sower [ . ]
- ditto - on G.C. paper [ . ]
- ditto - Millésime Pair (0) [ . ]

2 P.S. / 25c ERROR : L.L. for G.L. (Duston catalogue #6a) [ . ]

At least one millésime pair may be assumed for the 1 P.S. / 25c and other millésime pairs for one or both values may exist.
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Lebanon Grand Liban HEDJAZ G.L. HEDJAZ Chemin de Fer Railway Revenue
Lebanon Grand Liban HEDJAZ G.L. HEDJAZ Chemin de Fer Railway Revenue

c. 1920s : Undenominated French Revenue Stamps ('blanks' produced for any later use as required), surcharged.
2 P.S. Pale Rose-Red (19 mms x 34 mms) [ . ]
- ditto - No Stop after 'L' (2nd stamp in scan above & detail scan)* [ . ]
2 P.S. Dull Rose (24 mms x 34 mms) [ . ]
2 P.S. Bright Rose (24 mms x 50 mms) [ . ]
*
The pen cancellation passes over the position where the stop after the 'L' would be. We can see no firm evidence that it was printed at all, although there may possibly be a tiny part present (see detail scan).

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THE HEJAZ (1916-1922), the NEJD Occupation (1922-1925), Kingdom of Hejaz & Nejd (1925-1932), Saudi Arabia (1932-).

1. The Kingdom of the Hejaz :

In 1916, Great Britain was instrumental in encouraging Hussein, the Sharif of Mecca, to lead an uprising in the Hejaz against Turkish rule. Britain sent military advisers to assist the Arab Revolt and they included Colonel T.E. Lawrence who became actively involved with the Arab forces, notably in blowing up the Hejaz Railway to the point that it became unworkable, thus preventing Turkish troops from being effectively deployed.

The political status of the Hejaz was therefore very different to that of the lands occupied by the Allies, as the Arabian Peninsular was the territory of wartime allies. Promises to the Arab Army of major territorial rewards after the war were not honoured by the Allies but at least the newly-established Arab control in the Arabian peninsular was not challenged.

Hussein had proclaimed himself king in the Hejaz in 1916 but, a few years after the war, a challenge arose to King Hussein's authority inside Arabia. The Nejd region was ruled by the more puritanical Wahabis and, from 1923, they waged a religiously-driven war on the Hejaz, conquering it fully by 1925. This new political entity of the Hejaz and Nejd would later (1934) be renamed Saudi Arabia, after the Wahabi leader, Ibn Saud.

Philatelically, the Hejaz under Hussein issued revenue stamps for the Hejaz Railway from 1922 and these revenue stamps were variously surcharged for postal use by the newly-installed Nejd administration in 1925. We examine both the revenue and postage stamps related to the Hejaz Railway of this country.

THE HEJAZ : Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps :
Starting about 1916, there was a gap of several years in the use of Hejaz Railway Tax stamps in the region but the practice was revived in 1922 in the Hejaz with a set of eleven iconic stamps of a locomotive, ranging in value from 1q to 5000q.

timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 Occupation

Four low values of the Hejaz Railway revenues are shown above, but, in 2019, Cherrystone Auctions put up for sale the full basic set/11 in used blocks/4, the only known set in blocks/4 so far recorded, and these are shown below, courtesy of Cherrystone.

timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Nejd Hejaz Railway Tax stamps Revenue / Fiscal timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Nejd Hejaz Railway Tax stamps Revenue / Fiscal
timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Nejd Hejaz Railway Tax stamps Revenue / Fiscal timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Nejd Hejaz Railway Tax stamps Revenue / Fiscal
timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Nejd Hejaz Railway Tax stamps Revenue / Fiscal timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Nejd Hejaz Railway Tax stamps Revenue / Fiscal

Row 1: 1 Piastre; 2 Piastres; 3 Piastres; 5 Piastres
Row 2: 10 Piastres; 20 Piastres; 50 Piastres; 100 Piastres
Row 3: 500 Piastres; 1000 Piastres; 5000 Piastres

Currency: The Piastre had several alternative names including Qirsh. As the revenues are quite often shown employing this currency name, we have denominated the stamps as 'q', rather than 'Pi', in the list below, but either is fine.

A second check-box is provided for Type II examples of stamps of this issue, described below the listing.

1q Blue (shades) [ . ] [ . ]
2q Yellow [ . ] [ . ]
- ditto - wider spacing in the value tablet [ . ]
2q Orange [ . ] [ . ]
- ditto - wider spacing in the value table [ . ]
3q Pale Violet [ . ] [ . ]
5q Green [ . ] [ . ]
10q Purple [ . ] [ . ]
20q Olive [ . ] [ . ]
50q Light Blue [ . ] [ . ]
100q Brown [ . ] [ . ]
500q Scarlet (value in scarlet) [ . ] [ . ]
1000q Scarlet (value in deep blue) [ . ] [ . ]
5000q Deep Red-Purple (value in orange) [ . ] [ . ]

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Curiosities, probably printers' waste:
timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Nejd Hejaz Railway Tax stamps Revenue / Fiscal timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Nejd Hejaz Railway Tax stamps Revenue / Fiscal
The locomotive detail is hard to see but clearest at the top of the detail scan above.

Hejaz undenominated Orange Locomotive stamp printed over a Postage 1 pi Blue (Perf) [ . ]

Hejaz undenominated Orange Locomotive stamp printed over a Postage 5 pi in Gold with black opt. (Imperf) [ . ]

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Two types of locomotive cab on all values :
timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 Occupation timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 Occupation

Cabs: The usual format, which we shall call Type I, is that shown on the 1st, 3rd and 4th stamps above, but the 2nd stamp is Type II. These are, naturally, found on the postal surcharges as well. Features of the two types are as follows:

Type I : Cab Roof patterned, side 'window' panel of cab shaded with horizontal lines, coupling hook thin and not touching the inner frame-line of the right panel. The panel below the cab window is distinctly rectangular.

Type II (the second stamp in the line of scans above): Cab Roof nearly solid colour, side panel of cab almost solid colour, coupling hook somewhat thicker and often touches frame. The panel below the cab window is almost square (and usually heavily filled in). Note also the heavier fringes in the side panels on Type II.
The 4th stamp in the second row above displays some of the features of a Type II, such as a a nearly solid roof, but this comes from it being over-inked and from a slightly worn plate. The key features of Type II, the central (solid) bar of the cab joined at its foot to the locomotive cab-side and the square panel below the cab window are not present.

Sheet Format :

timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 Occupation
The 500q in a sheet/18, showing the Type II cab in Position 12. Image courtesy of Cherrystone Auctions.

The stamps were printed in sheets/36 (6x6) except for the 500q which was printed in sheets/18 (6x3). Type II is found in Position 30 (Row 5,6) in the sheets/36 and Position 12 (Row 2,6) in the sheet/18.

There is one stamp about which we have no information, shown below, with an overprint for Hejaz Railway Aid (bottom line of overprint). Due to its style, we think this may belong to the reign of Hussein bin Ali, perhaps around 1923/24.

timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 Occupation

1922/23 2 pi Orange (SG 44) optd (as shown in scan) for Hejaz Railway [ . ]
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Overthrow of Hussein bin Ali : Formation of Kingdom of Hejaz & Nejd.

Around the time of Ibn Saud's victory in 1925, various postal and revenue overprints began to be applied both to the Hejaz postage and revenue stamps, including the Hejaz Railway tax stamps showing an ancient locomotive. Many of the precise details of what occurred philatelically around 1924/25 have probably been lost for ever in the mists of time, but the time period involved is short. New Hejaz Railway revenues showing a more modern steam train were introdcued from 1926.

The following extract from Wikipedia is included here as, at first sight, it appears to explain the postal surcharging of Hejaz Railway revenues of the Kingdom of the Hejaz by the Nejd victors.

Extract from Wikipedia: With the Arab Revolt and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, it was unclear to whom the railway should belong. The area was divided between the British and the French, both eager to assume control. However, following years of neglected maintenance, many sections of track fell into disrepair; the railway was effectively abandoned by 1920. In 1924, when Ibn Saud took control of the peninsula, plans to revive the railway were no longer on the agenda.

This could be said to beg the question as to why, within a year, a new design of Hejaz Railway tax stamp had appeared under Ibn Saud's administration and it remained in use, with minor modification, until 1943. What valid reason was there for maintaining such a (nominally, at least) specifically-targeted form of taxation as a revenue stamp in aid of the Hejaz Railway if one had no ambitions in that direction?

2. The Kingdom of Hejaz & Nejd (and later Saudi Arabia) :

Dates of issue in and around 1925 are very uncertain and we have therefore chosen to list in the same order as the excellent 'Catalogue of the Fiscal Stamps of Saudi Arabia 1916-2001' compiled by R.J.Thoden. It was produced by the Arabian Philatelic Association International and describes the handstamps on the 1916 Hejaz revenues, then on the Hejaz postage stamps, then on the Hejaz postage dues.

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c.1925 Various Hejaz Railway Revenue Stamps (Locomotive) handstamped :

timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 Occupation

1q Blue : Handstamped in Black [ . ]
1q Blue : Handstamped in Violet [ . ]
1q Blue : Handstamped in Magenta [ . ]

and/or
1q Blue : Handstamped in Rose [ . ] **
**: We are unclear whether the handstamp in Magenta that we have seen may be the same stamp as the 'Rose' listed by Thoden.

100q Brown : Handstamped in Violet [ . ]
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timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 Occupation

1q Blue (with handstamp as shown on 2q above) [ . ]
2q Yellow-Orange (as in scan above) [ . ]

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timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 Occupation

With handstamp as in the previous issue, plus rectangular boxed handstamp at foot with new value:
1q / 5000q Purple & Orange [ . ]
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timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 Occupation

With handstamp as in the previous two issues, plus rectangular boxed handstamp at foot with new value. The source stamp is in the colour of the 1q but with a blank value tablet at foot.

1q / (-) Blue [ . ]
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Postal issues:
We think it probable that both Type I and Type II cabs exist for all the postage (and postage due) values listed below, although there must be some doubt as to whether Type II examples of some of the exceptionally scarce stamps will have survived. We have provided two check-boxes against all of them.

timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 Occupation

The handstamp translates as 1343 / Nejd Sultanate Post (SG 195-97 + 196a)
Mar 1925 : 1 pi Blue (opt in Red) [ . ] [ . ]
Mar 1925 : 2 pi Orange (opt in Red) [ . ] [ . ]
- ditto - but Overprint in Violet [ . ] [ . ]
Mar 1925 : 3 pi Lilac (opt in Red) [ . ] [ . ]


As above, but 2 pi. with overprint in Black :
timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 Occupation

Mar 1925 : 2 pi Orange, but Overprint in Black [ . ]
Only one copy has been reported of the 2 pi with overprint in Black, originally part of the Thoden collection. Image courtesy of Cherrystone Auctions.

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timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 Occupation

Commemoration of Pilgrimage : SG 214 :
July 1925 : 3 pi Lilac [ . ] [ . ]

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timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 Occupation

The handstamp translates as Nejd Sultanate Post (now without date) : SG 218/a-221
July 1925 : 1 pi Blue (opt in Red) [ . ] [ . ]
- ditto - Overprint in Black [ . ] [ . ]
July 1925 : 2 pi Orange (opt in Blue) [ . ] [ . ]
July 1925 : 3 pi Lilac (opt in Blue) [ . ] [ . ]
July 1925 : 5 pi Green (opt in Blue) [ . ] [ . ]


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timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 Occupation

1925 : 1 pi Blue handstamped as above 'Saudi Sultanate of Nejd' in two lines [ . ] [ . ]

The above stamp is listed in some catalogues and footnoted in others. It is said to have been produced by order of the Postmaster of Medina. There do not seem to be any mint copies on the market, but used copies do turn up from time to time. The handstamp is not listed amongst the fiscal handstamps known on these locomotive types, so it does indeed appear to be a postal handstamp.

There is a wider version of this 'overprint' shown in the Scott catalogue, which is said to show the only copy known of this stamp featuring a similar, but thinner and longer, handstamp. The handstamp on the stamp that Scott illustrates appears to have been applied after the stamp was affixed to paper, which would rather complicate its status. Is it a handstamp if applied to the stamp before it is affixed to the envelope but a cancellation if applied once the stamp is on the envelope? We are not providing a check-list for a stamp of which only one copy is reported and whose origins and purpose are somewhat unclear.
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Capture of Medina set/5 : Overprinted Nejd Postage / 1344 / Commemoration of Medina & new value.

timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 Occupation
The overprints are in two parts. The commemorative text is an overprint in the first colour shown in our listing below; the surcharge value, in a frame, is in the second colour and is handstamped.

1925 : 1 pi / 10 pi Violet (Black Opt., Violet handstamp) [ . ] [ . ]
1925 : 2 pi / 50 pi Blue (Red Opt., Blue handstamp) [ . ] [ . ]
1925 : 3 pi / 100 pi Sienna (Blue Opt., Black handstamp) [ . ] [ . ]
1925 : 4 pi / 500 pi Red (Blue Opt., Black handstamp) [ . ] [ . ]
1925 : 5 pi / 1000 pi Red (Blue Opt., Black handstamp) [ . ] [ . ]

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Capture of Jeddah set/5 : Overprinted Commemoration of Jeddah / 1344 / Nejd Postage & new value.

timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 Occupation
As before, the overprints are in two parts, commemorative text in the first colour, the surcharge value, in a frame, in the second colour.

1925 : 1 pi / 10 pi Violet (Black Opt., Violet handstamp) [ . ] [ . ]
- ditto - Imperforate between vertically (horizontal pair) [ . ] [ . ]
- ditto - Imperforate between horizontally (vertical pair) [ . ] [ . ]
1925 : 2 pi / 50 pi Blue (Red Opt., Blue handstamp) [ . ] [ . ]
1925 : 3 pi / 100 pi Sienna (Blue Opt., Black handstamp) [ . ] [ . ]
1925 : 4 pi / 500 pi Red (Blue Opt., Black handstamp) [ . ] [ . ]
1925 : 5 pi / 1000 pi Red (Blue Opt., Black handstamp) [ . ] [ . ]

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Postage Due Stamps :

timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 Occupation timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 Occupation

Above, we show a pair of postage dues: The left stamp is in Type I, the right stamp in Type II. As often, the difference is not immediately clear. Note that the cab roof and coupling are similar to those features on other Type II stamps but that the vertical cab-window dividing bar is not typical in appearance of a Type II, being wider and filling the whole of the 'window' area. However, the stamp does have the Type II feature of a square, rather than a rectangular, box below the cab window.
The single scanned stamp is the rare 2 Piastres with the Postage Due (framed) handstamp in BLUE.

timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 Occupation

The scan shows three examples of the 1 piastre: Type I, Type II and Type I with the framed 'Postage Due' handstamp inverted, as well as the other three values.

The overprints are in two parts The text overprint 'Nejd Sultanate Post' is in the first colour given, the framed Postage Due handstamp in the second colour.

1925 : 1 pi Blue (Nejd Post in Black, P. Due in Red) SG D.232 [ . ] [ . ]
- ditto - Postage Due handstamp inverted [ . ] [ . ]

1925 : 2 pi Orange (Nejd Post in Blue, P. Due in BLACK) SG D.233 [ . ] [ . ]
- ditto - but Nejd Post in Blue, P. Due in BLUE [ . ] [ ? ]
Scan slightly higher up. See note below: **

1925 : 5 pi Green (Nejd Post in Black, P. Due in Red) SG D.236 [ . ] [ . ]
1925 : 5 pi Green (Nejd Post in Lilac, P. Due in Black) SG D.237 [ . ] [ . ]


** A Rare Stamp. These framed handstamps on the 2 Piastres postage due in Black and in Blue are reported (most curiously) to come from within the same sheet! Given the rarity of all these stamps with BLUE framed postage due handstamps, there must be some doubt as to whether any examples ever existed showing the locomotive cab in Type II, hence the [ ? ] notation.

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1925 Provisional Hejaz Railway revenues :

We move now to the next group of Hejaz Railway Revenue stamps. The final postage stamp issue of the Hejaz in 1925 (SG 177-185) contained ten combinations of design, colour and face value. None of these stamps were issued without either a postal handstamp, a revenue handstamp or sometimes both.

We have very few images of the issued revenue stamps in these designs, but we do have access to scans of the imperforate proofs of the original stamp designs that were later handstamped for either postal or revenue use. The seven original stamps selected later to produce (perforated) Hejaz Railway revenue stamps are shown below:

timbres-poste Briefmarken and Hejaz Railway Proofs  Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 timbres-poste Briefmarken and Hejaz Railway Proofs  Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 timbres-poste Briefmarken and Hejaz Railway Proofs  Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925
Above: Left-to-Right: ⅛q ; ¼q ; ½q
timbres-poste Briefmarken and Hejaz Railway Proofs  Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 timbres-poste Briefmarken and Hejaz Railway Proofs  Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 timbres-poste Briefmarken and Hejaz Railway Proofs  Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925
Above: Left-to-Right: 1½q ; 3q; 5q : Below Left 10q.
timbres-poste Briefmarken and Hejaz Railway Proofs  Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925

When some of the initial printing of stamps in these new designs went missing in transit, an order was signed that all stamps, postage or revenue, should be given validating handstamps, which took the form of vertical text side-panels at left and right, without which the stamps were invalid. These handstamps were first introduced at Jeddah where either a single postal handstamp OR two-part revenue handstamps were applied. The postage and revenue handstamps are different. In addition to the side panels, all revenue stamps additionally have the ornate central handstamp as shown on the next scan.

When a further stamp print-run was ordered from Cairo, the printers there were asked to add the control themselves and we believe these all received the postal handstamp. Specialists can differentiate between the Jeddah and Cairo handstamps. We have no information that it is necessary to be able to distinguish between these handstamps for any of the Hejaz Railway revenues.

Revenue stamps exist with only revenue side panels or with both revenue and postal side panels. We examine these separately.

With Revenue side panels only (and the ornate central handstamp) :
Saudi Arabia Hejaz & Nejd Hejaz Railway stamps c.1925

The scan above shows the 1q/10q Hejaz Railway revenue of this first group. The 'set' comprises seven values, each with the same three handstamps as follows:
The ornate, circular design in the centre of the stamps.
A rectangular boxed handstamp with the new value '1' at both ends, on the right in the scan above.
A second rectangular box with Arabic text but no figures of value.

The first two elements above were both present on the handstamped locomotive issues higher up but the third element is new. In both side panels the text, if correctly applied, reads down. We have not seen reports of inverted side panels for this issue but they could well exist. Note that the two revenue side panels were applied using separate handstamps, unlike the postal side panels which we examine later and which were applied with a single handstamp.

With Revenue side panels only (Handstamp in Black unless otherwise stated) :
1q / ⅛q Chocolate [ . ]
1q / ¼q Blue [ . ]
1q / ½q Rose-Red [ . ]
1q / 1½q Orange [ . ]
- ditto - Value Handstamp Double, but one on each side (normal left handstamp also present) [ . ]
1q / 3q Deep Green [ . ]
1q / 5q Orange-Red (handstamps all in Blue) [ . ]
- ditto - Circular Handstamp in Blue, other handstamps in Black [ . ]
1q / 10q Carmine-Rose & Green (as in scan above) [ . ]

Both the varieties above are from the Thoden catalogue.
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The next group were handstamped in the same style as the 'set' above (circular handstamp + two 'revenue' panels) but these were applied to stamps of the Postage Due design, in two cases without the postal handstamp, in two cases with the postal handstamp.

timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 Occupation timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 Occupation

We have never seen any of the Postage Due design handstamped to serve as Hejaz Railway revenues. The scans above, therefore, show the normal Postage Due set/4 (all four complete with postal handstamps), SG D.186-189. The ½q and 2q values but WITHOUT this postal handstamp were used for Hejaz Railway revenues, whilst the 1q and 3q WITH the postal handstamp were used.

We repeat the scan of the 1q/10q from the previous set at right above in order to re-illustrate the circular handstamp and two panels which were applied to these postage due designs, whether or not they already had the postal handstamp. As before, the two Hejaz Railway revenue tax side panels were applied separately.

Stamps designed for Postage Due use but WITHOUT Postal Handstamps : Hejaz Railway handstamps applied.
1q / ½q Bright Blue [ . ]
1q / 2q Chestnut-Brown [ . ]

Postage Due stamps WITH Postal Handstamps and Hejaz Railway handstamps.
1q / 2q Yellow-Orange [ . ]
1q / 3q Deep Rose [ . ]

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A similar arrangement was made for converting ordinary postage stamps to Hejaz Railway revenue use. With the postage stamps, all of them had their postal side panel handstamps, but these come in up to three colours per stamp. The Hejaz revenue handstamps also sometimes exist in more than one colour.

On Postage Stamp designs, WITH postal 2-panel handstamp AND all Revenue handstamps :
Saudi Arabia Hejaz & Nejd Hejaz Railway stamps c.1925 timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 Occupation timbres-poste Briefmarken Saudi Arabia Hejaz Nejd 1925 Occupation
At left, a Hejaz Railway revenue stamp from this group.
Centre : Postage Stamp (with handstamp 'normal'), handstamp in Black - SG 184C
Right : Postage Stamp (with handstamp inverted), handstamp in Blue - SG 185B

In addition to the complexity described above these scans, some of these stamps are known with postal handstamp inverted. Out listing below simply repeats combinations of handstamps and colours that have been recorded. These provisional revenue stamps are rare and it seems certain that most of the possible combinations never existed. However, it is also very possible that there are other issued combinations still to be identified and catalogued, especially as the only scan that we can provide for this issue is one that is not in Thoden, on which we have largely relied for the listing here.

All three elements of the Hejaz Railway Handstamps on the stamps below are in BLACK unless otherwise stated.

1. For revenue use on stamps with postal handstamps in BLACK:
1q / ⅛q Chocolate : Postal Handstamp normal, viz. date 1343 at left [ . ]

1q / 10q Carmine-Rose & Green : Postal Handstamp Normal [ . }
- ditto - but Postal Handstamp Inverted (as per scan) [ . ]

1q / 10q Carmine-Rose & Green : Hejaz Circular h/st in Blue, others Hejaz h/sts in Black, Postal H/st. Normal [ . ]

1q / 10q Carmine-Rose & Green : All three Hejaz handstamps in Blue, Postal H/st. Normal [ . ]

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2. For revenue use on stamps with postal handstamps in BLUE:
1q / ½q Rose-Red : Postal Handstamp Normal [ . ]

1q / 5q Orange-Red : Postal Handstamp Inverted [ . ]

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3. For revenue use on stamps with postal handstamps in RED:
1q / 3q Green : Postal Handstamp Inverted [ . ]
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That completes the provisional Hejaz Railway revenues, probably all produced around 1925/26.
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New Design : Contemporary Steam Locomotive :
From 1926, a new design showing a steam train was introduced which, with modifications, was used for the remainder of this country's Hejaz Railway Fund revenues. Initially inscribed (in Arabic) 'The Arabian Government' when the stamps first appeared in 1926, this inscription, located in the top panel, was amended for the issue in 1934 to 'The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia'. Details of the two inscriptions in the top panels are illustrated immediately below:

Saudi Arabia Hejaz & Nejd Hejaz Railway stamps 1926 Saudi Arabia Hejaz & Nejd Hejaz Railway stamps 1934
. . . . . . . . . Left : 1926 issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Right : 1934 issue .

1926 Issue:
Saudi Arabia Hejaz & Nejd Hejaz Railway stamps 1926

1926 Issue:
We have only seen 1q and 2q values in this design, which would probably have been the taxation rate on the vast majority of documents. The higher values are very elusive and we have adopted the listing and colours in Thoden, who states that additional values may exist.

1926 : Steam Locomotive inscribed 'The Arabian Government', Perf 11½ unless stated.
1q Greenish Slate [ . ]
1q Light Blue [ . ]
- ditto - Perf 10¾ [ . ]
2q Salmon [ . ]
2q Rose-Red [ . ] (not in Thoden)
5q Yellow[ . ]
10q Light Olive-Green [ . ]
20q Reddish Lilac [ . ]
30q Grey Olive [ . ]
40q Grey Black [ . ]
50q Blackish Purple [ . ]
100q Red Orange [ . ]

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1934 Issue, now for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia :

Saudi Arabia Hejaz & Nejd Hejaz Railway stamps 1934
Document bearing a ½g Bright Green revenue stamp, a ⅛g Charity Tax stamp for the Medical Aid Society in Vermilion which was also required on certain mail and is therefore in main stamp catalogues (SG 346) and a 1934 1q Hejaz Railway stamp.

Saudi Arabia Hejaz & Nejd Hejaz Railway stamps 1934

1934 Issue:
Thoden only lists three values for the stamps with the new inscription but again mentions that further values may exist. We would very much welcome information and, ideally, scans, of any of the 1926 or 1934 values not illustrated here.

1934 : Steam Locomotive inscribed 'The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia', Perf 11½ unless stated.
1q Greenish Blue [ . ]
- ditto - Perf 10¾ [ . ]
2q Orange Vermilion [ . ]
5q Yellow[ . ]

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Road Tax Stamps : 1943-1967
The use of Hejaz Railway Tax stamps ceased in Saudi Arabia in 1943, to be replaced by road stamps to be used in the same manner to pay for roads. This is outside the scope of this article but the stamp design is intriguing. It shows a car and a steam roller but, between these, are two vehicles that are probably intended to be traction engines but the wheels, in particular, make them appear much more like early steam locomotives, albeit without tender.

We show examples below with, for those interested, a brief summary of which values exist in this design, although high values will again probably be very scarce.

Saudi Arabia Hejaz Road Tax stamps 1943-1967 Saudi Arabia Hejaz Road Tax stamps 1943-1967
Saudi Arabia Road Tax stamps 1943-1967

First Set : 1944-46 : Values in Qirsh: 1q; 2q; 5q; 10q; 20q; 30q; 40q; 50q; 100q; 200q; 500q

Second Set : 1965 : Values in Halalah & Riyals : 10h; 25h; 50h; 1R; 2R; 3R; 4R; 5R

.

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O T H E R . . N O N - O T T O M A N . . I S S U E S
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After armies occupy new territory, public mail services are almost always suspended. In the short term thereafter, if public mail is handled at all, civil censors will be needed and the mail prepayment arrangements are often transitory, possibly eccentric and rarely well-patronised, leading to philatelic rarities in many cases. Typically the arrangements may include emergency handstamps applied to postage, revenue or any other stamp stocks that can be found.

As the army advances and the military administration is replaced by the bureaucrats, further new measures both for the postal service and the secure gathering of tax revenues will usually be introduced, but, again, very short-term temporary solutions may precede the introduction of a satisfactory permanent postal and tax regime. It is the initial impromptu local arrangements for mail and tax revenues in multiple theatres of war, added in some cases to the absence of any surviving contemporary records, that makes it inevitable that, from time to time, there will be local issues of stamps (or postal history practices) where it is difficult, or close to impossible, to unravel at a later date what was issued or authorised at the time.

In the case of postage stamps, recovered information from the period of occupation and, often, extensive philatelic research has helped to reveal a fairly accurate picture of the postage stamps, overprints and postal practices. However, the same cannot usually be said for revenue stamps, which have always had a smaller philatelic following. It seems fair to assume that the number of research-orientated Ottoman revenue aficionados in and around 1920 would have been miniscule.

This section is largely filled with revenue stamps, with only one postal issue, from Mosul. We have never seen most of these revenue stamps and the listings are the outputs from various catalogues. We have provided a general historical background to each territory below, but, as signalled by the passage above, the philatelic information is frequently no more than rudimentary.

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Greek Occupation of Anatolia and Ottoman Territories in Europe.

Greece initially remained neutral in The Great War, having only just completed its victorious campaign in the Second Balkan War (1912/13). However, it joined with the Allies in 1917 and ended up occupying parts of the Ottoman Empire, both on the European continent and in Anatolia.

The Greek troops, along with some Italian troops, were the principal target of the Anatolian Government's forces seeking to recover more of the Ottoman lands for the Turks in 1920-22. At this point, Britain, France and Russia all withdrew their support for their former ally, Greece, choosing to side with Turkey for geo-political reasons. This inevitably led to the defeat of the Greek forces and led to the evacuation of large numbers of Greeks from Asia Minor. However, whilst there is a significant range of postal history reflecting the many short-lived practices in this period, the postage and revenue stamps do not reflect these changes to anything like the same extent. Catalogues list just three Hejaz Railway revenue stamps issued under Greek auspices, of which we are able to display only one.

Hejaz Railway Tax Stamps Mesopotamia Iraq Mosul

Greek Occupation of Ottoman Empire : Hejaz Railway revenue stamp of Ottoman Empire surcharged.
1919 : 2 grosi / 2 pi. / 1 pi. Surcharge horizontal (as in scan) [ . ]
The black two-line script overprint at the foot of the stamp contains the 2 piastres surcharge; see the Part I article.

Explanation of Currency : Reproduced from Wikipedia:
Kurus, also Qirsh, Ersh, Gersh, Grush and Grosi, are all names for currency denominations in and around the territories formerly part of the Ottoman Empire. The variation in the name stems from the different languages used (Arabic, Amharic, Hebrew, Turkish and Greek), complicated further by the different transcriptions into the Latin alphabet. In European languages, the kurus was typically known as the piastre.

Greek Occupation of Ottoman Empire: Similar surcharge but SIDEWAYS on a 1 piastre stamp in the same design.
1919 : 2 groshi / 1 pi THIN Surcharge (reads up) [ . ]
1919 : 2 groshi / 1 pi THICK Surcharge (reads up) [ . ]
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Italian Occupation of the Aegean Islands (Italo-Turkish War, 1912)

We have never seen any of these stamps and have only catalogues to guide us, which we hope we have interpreted correctly. It seems strange, certainly, that when Italian forces occupied the Aegean Islands in 1912, Hejaz Railway revenues apparently belonging to four periods, one as far back as 1904, were discovered, presumably in some archive. We would particularly like to receive some scans of a few of these issues, if anyone can help, please. For the present, we just show the original Ottoman stamps to which the Italian surcharges were applied, along with a text description of the surcharge.

All the stamps apparently received the same 3-line overprint, probably a handstamp, reading OCCUPAZIONE ITALIANA / OCCUPATION ITALIENNE / ΙΤΑΛΙΚΗ ΚΑΤΑΧΩΡΗΣΗ.

Hejaz Railway Tax Stamps Italian occupation of the Aegean Islands
We have no information as to which shades of these stamps were sent to the Aegean Islands.

1912 : Left Stamp in scan above but with 3-line overprint (OCCUPAZIONE ITALIANA etc.) as per text above :
1 pi (design of 1904) [ . ]

1912 : Centre Stamp in scan above but with 3-line overprint (OCCUPAZIONE ITALIANA etc.) as per text above :
1 pi (design of 1905, Tughra of Sultan Abdul Hanid II at top) [ . ]

1912 : Right Stamp in scan above but with 3-line overprint (OCCUPAZIONE ITALIANA etc.) as per text above :
1 pi (design of 1910, Tughra of Mohammed V Reschad at top, blank field to left of map) [ . ]

Hejaz Railway Tax Stamps found overprinted for Italian Occupation of the Aegean Islands, Italo-Turkish War 1912

Shown above, again, is the original Ottoman issue Hejaz Railway revenue, described in Part I of this article. Three values in this design apparently also received the same Italian overprint, but, again, we have no images of these overprinted stamps. This is the printing of this design which has the full-length text in the large curved panel.

1912 : Stamp as above with 3-line overprint OCCUPAZIONE ITALIANA / OCCUPATION ITALIENNE / ΙΤΑΛΙΚΗ ΚΑΤΑΧΩΡΗΣΗ.
1 pi Red [ . ]
2 pi Red [ . ]
3 pi Bright Rose [ . ]

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Italian Occupation of other Ottoman Territories (Italo-Turkish War, 1912)

The principal territory acquired by Italy in the war was Libya, although their full control of the whole of that country was only achieved over many years. Here and in any other territory outside the Aegean Islands, the occupying Italian forces in the Italo-Turkish War of 1912 overprinted the Ottoman Hejaz Railway and other revenue stamps Debito Pubblico / Ottomana / (& new value), we think always in Black, thus converting them from Hejaz Railway to Ottoman Public Debt revenues. We list those that have been reported.

For an explanation of the Ottoman Public Debt (Debito Pubblico / Ottomana ), see the section framed in this same colour in the introduction to this article.

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Hejaz Railway Tax Stamps Italian Occupation of Ottoman Territories Italo-Turkish War 1912

1912 : Italo-Turkish War : Hejaz Railway revenues overprinted 'Debito Pubblico Ottomana' in lower case letters.
5 pa / 1 pi Red : Overprint reads UP [ . ]
- ditto - Overprint reads DOWN [ . ]

10 pa / 1 pi Red : Overprint reads UP [ . ]
- ditto - Overprint reads DOWN [ . ]

20 pa / 1 pi Red : Overprint reads UP [ . ]
- ditto - Overprint reads DOWN [ . ]

2 pi / 1 pi Red : Overprint reads UP [ . ]
- ditto - Overprint reads DOWN [ . ] 2 pi / 1 pi Red : Overprint DOUBLE - reads UP [ . ]

1912 : Italo-Turkish War : Hejaz Railway revenues optd. 'DEBITO PUBBLICO / OTTOMANA / (& new value)' in capital letters.
2 pi / 1 pi Red : Overprint DOUBLE - reads UP [ . ]

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Mesopotamia / Iraq / Mosul

Early in the First World War, British troops invaded the historic region of Mesopotamia, an area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers ruled at that time by the Ottomans. Their principal aim was to take Basra and the adjacent oilfields but mission-creep led them North, later to fall to a heavy defeat at the hands of the Ottomans. With the eventual allied victory in the Great War, the British were given a League of Nations mandate to govern a newly-formed country, Iraq, which included much of the Mesopotamia region.

Hejaz Railway Tax Stamps Mesopotamia Iraq Mosul

We have no real information on the first two stamps above, not even whether they are handstamps or cancellations. However, the first stamp was accompanied by a note reading just '1914-1918' and the second stamp with a note which just read '1916, which suggests something more than a cancellation.

The word 'IRAQ' is not in the Ottoman alphabet and is perhaps a handstamp applied by the British military in the areas they occupied. The British were, at around that time, busy blowing up the Ottoman-run Hejaz Railway using Arab Army forces supported by T.E.Lawrence, so it seems inconceivable that the Hejaz Railway was the beneficiary of whatever use was found for these stamps.

The third stamp in the scan above is mentioned in the McDonald and Steve Jacques catalogues and whilst it is certainly a fiscal, the destination of the funds raised again seems very unlikely to be the Hejaz Railway. The fourth stamp is a postage stamp, listed by SG as Mosul SG 1, separate issues being issued for this city as its status was disputed. The Republic of Turkey relinquished its claim to Mosul in 1926, when it became part of Iraq.

Ottoman Empire 1 pi Steam Train Revenue : Handstamped (?) for use in Iraq.
1915-1918 : 1 pi handstamped IRAQ in Violet, diagonally, in large capital letters [ . ]

1916 : 1 pi handstamped IRAQ in Red, diagonally, in small capital letters [ . ]

British Occupation of the Ottoman Empire : 1 pi revalued 8 Annas.
1917 : 8 Annas / 1 pi : Hand Printed overprint with wide spacing between lines [ . ]

1918 : 8 Annas / 1 pi : Typographed overprint with narrow spacing between lines (3rd stamp in scan) [ . ]

Postage Stamp: British Occupation of Iraq : Mosul
1919 : ½ anna / 1 pi Train & Camel (Mosul SG 1) [ . ]

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A final thought on the Hejaz Railway Fund. In the main, principally for religious reasons, it was very popular tax with the public, a remarkably rare statement about any tax! One wonders if this positive attitude was instrumental in the British and French authorities keeping the legislation requiring its use on many documents on the statute books, long past any time when its ostensible purpose remained credible.

There is a direct link to Part I of this article in the left panel. It is also accessible via the Index Page to all Railway Articles.

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