Paper Heritage - Briefmarken mit Eisenbahnmotiv : Trams on Stamps: Hauptpostamt Berlin

This is a design which has given rise to some confusion amongst railway thematic collectors, confusion compounded by the haphazard and incomplete listing of these stamps in some railway catalogues.

The majority of the One Mark stamps, showing the Reichspostgebäude (also referred to at times as the Hauptpostamt) in Berlin, are very fine quality recess-engraved stamps, issued between 1900 and about 1920. However, in 1920 the design was completely redrawn and printed by lithography. For those unfamiliar with printing methods, these stamps provide an excellent illustration of the difference in quality between the two types, but there are also modifications to the design.

Recess-engraved (1900-c.1920) : There are no flags on the GPO building; there are three people standing in front of the horse-drawn carriage just right of centre and there is only a horse-drawn vehicle to the left of the building. There are two sets of tram tracks down the left-hand side of the building and strong evidence that the horse-drawn vehicle on the left is a horse-drawn tram.

Lithographed (1920) : There are two flags on the left side of the building (faintly drawn), a flag on the extreme right of the building, one person standing behind the horse-drawn carriage just right of centre and both a horse-drawn vehicle and a poorly-defined electric tram to the left of the building.

GPO Berlin Recess and Litho

Above : Left: Recess-engraved One Mark (1900- ) . . . . . . Right: Lithographed One Mark (1920- )

Note re. the 1900 design: There has been considerable dispute about whether there is a horse-tram or even indeed tramway tracks shown on the recess-engraved stamps, which were issued in 1900. The postcard, illustrated below, was posted on New Year's Day 1899 using the private Berlin Parcel Post service, and this card clearly shows a horse-drawn tram at precisely the location of the parallel lines to the left of the building on the recess-printed stamp, which confirms that this stamp shows tram tracks and, in all probability, the rear of a horse-tram as well, although a horse-bus which happens to be on the tram tracks, is an unlikely alternative for those who remain sceptical.

GPO Berlin PPC


GPO Berlin PPC detail GPO Berlin PPC back
Front and back of the postcard, probably printed around 1898, of the Hauptpostamt, described as 'Das neue Reichspostgebäude' (Empire postal service building) on the card.


GPO Berlin PPC GPO Berlin PPC

Above, we show detail scans of the recess-engraved stamp of 1900 (left) and the 1920 lithographed stamp (right). A notable feature is that the post-war artist, whilst amending the design for the lithographed stamps, may have been conscious how anachronistic the horse-tram would appear alongside an electric tramcar being added to the design twenty years on. The carriage has been re-drawn and the horse's front leg animated in an energetic manner one might not expect of a horse accustomed to pulling a tramcar, perhaps, although one can only surmise, in an effort to make it appear more like a private carriage than a tram.
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Returning now to the recess-engraved stamps, there are several printings, some with changes to the inscriptions.

Most unusually, variations in perforation on this design are commonly described by the total number of holes on each side of the stamp and we have adopted this method here too. (The reason for this unusual practice is the tiny difference in perforation, 14¼ against 14). We have used Michel numbers, the commonest reference work for specialised German stamps.
Please be aware that these are not from a particularly recent edition of the catalogue and that, while principal numbers should be unchanged, some of the sub-numbers may have changed over time.
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GERMANY (German Reich)

1900 (Recess) Inscribed REICHSPOST at the foot:
1 Mark Red (shades) (Mi. 63a) [ . ]
- ditto - Brownish-carmine (Mi. 63b) [ . ]
- ditto - Trial perforation 11½ - unissued. (Mi. 63B) [ . ]

1902 (Recess) Inscribed DEUTSCHES REICH at foot. No watermark.
1 Mark Red (brownish-orange appearance) 26x17 perforation holes (Mi. 78Aa) [ . ]
- ditto - Carmine-red (Mi. 78Ab)[ . ]
- ditto - Imperf (Mi. 78U) [ . ]

1 Mark Carmine-red : 25x16 perforation holes (Mi. 78 B) [ . ]

1906-17 (Recess) Inscribed DEUTSCHES REICH at foot. Watermark Lozenges.
1 Mark Carmine-red on white paper, clear impression, 26x17 holes. (1906) (Mi. 94 A I) [ . ]
- ditto - Carmine-red on greyish wartime paper, 26x17 holes. (1916/17) (Mi. 94 A II) [ . ]
- ditto - Red on greyish wartime paper, 25 x 17 holes. (1916/17) (Mi. 94 B II) [ . ]

Note: The paper is only marginally greyer, but this, combined with the brighter ink and sharper definition of the 1906 issue, does produce a stamp of different appearance.

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stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin Strassenbahn Tram
Lithographed stamps of 1920. The 1 Mark value is shown in the top scan on this page.

1920 (March) Lithographed (wmk lozenges)
1 Mark Red (Mi. A 113a) [ . ]
- ditto - Brownish-red (Mi. A1 113b) [ . ]
- ditto - var. lower half of flagstaff at extreme right missing (Mi. A 113 II) [ . ]
- ditto - var. right-hand rosette with damage to left side (Mi. A 113 III) [ . ]
- ditto - var. Closed lower half of ' E ' in ' DEUTSCHES ' (Mi. A 113 IV) [ . ]

1M25 Green (Mi. 113) [ . ]

1M50 Yellow-brown to orange-brown (Mi. 115a) [ . ]
- ditto - reddish-brown (Mi. 114b) [ . ]
- ditto - (dark)brown (Mi. 114c) [ . ]

Note: All three values (1M, 1M25 and 1M50) exist with double printing of the complete design.

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stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin Strassenbahn Tram

1920 (June) Unissued recess-engraved 1 Mark in new colours surcharged:
1M25 / 1 Mk Dark Green (Mi. 116 I) [ . ]
- ditto - thin surcharge (Mi. 116 II) [ . ]

1M50 / 1 Mk reddish-brown (Mi. 117) [ . ]
- ditto - Figure ' 1 ' with wide head (Mi. 117F) [ . ]

Mi. 117 also noted as existing with double surcharge and with watermark omitted, both rare

We can find no mention of the existence of any examples of the 1 Mark in Dark Green or of the 1 Mark in Reddish-Brown without surcharge. Such total absence of any surviving unsurcharged examples of stamps which have been issued surcharged would be quite an unusual occurrence in philately.

That concludes the issues for Germany. There were, however, numerous overprints on this stamp for constituent parts of Germany, the Colonies, Post Offices, Occupations of World War I and some post-WWI plebiscites. Although it leads to a rather unstructured listing chronologically, we have chosen to list them purely alphabetically for ease of reference.

In the following sections, in the case of overprinted 1 Mark stamps, we have indicated the catalogue number of the original stamp of Germany where this is helpful in identification.

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ALLENSTEIN / in Polish OLSZTYN (East Prussia) - Plebiscite Issues.

After the First Wolrd War, the population of Allenstein were given the choice of either Polish or German rule in the plebiscite. The belligerent tactics of the Russians close to their borders which left the Poles in East Prussia in fear of the Soviets overrunning the territory, combined with German intimidation within the territory itself, led to a massively pro-Germany vote in the plebiscite.

stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin Allenstein Olzstyn Referendum

1920 (Apr) : Optd. PLEBISCITE / OLSZTYN / ALLENSTEIN
1 Mark Red (optd. on recess-engraved, Germany Mi. 94) (Mi. 10) [ . ]
- ditto - Overprint Double (Mi. 10 DD) [ . ]

1M25 Dark Blue-Green (Mi. 11a) [ . ]
- ditto - Blue-green (Mi. 11b) [ . ]
- ditto - Overprint Double (Not in Michel, SG 11a) [ . ]

1M50 Yellow-brown (Mi. 12a) [ . ]
- ditto - reddish-brown (Mi. 12b) [ . ]
- ditto - (dark)brown (Mi. 12c) [ . ]

stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin  Allenstein plebiscite

1920 (May-June) : Optd. TRAITE DE VERSAILLES etc. in an oval
1 Mark Carmine-red (optd on recess-engraved, Germany Mi. 94) (Mi. 24) [ . ]
- ditto - Overprint Inverted (Mi. 24K) [ . ]

1M25 Dark Blue-Green (Mi. 25a) [ . ]
- ditto - Blue-Green (Mi. 25b) [ . ]

1M50 Yellow-brown (Mi. 26a) [ . ]
- ditto - reddish-brown (Mi. 26b) [ . ]
- ditto - (dark)brown (Mi. 26c) [ . ]

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BAVARIA (German State)

stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin Freistaat Bayern Strassenbahn

1919 : Optd. Freistaat Bayern in Germanic Script
1 Mark Carmine-red (optd. on recess-engraved , Germany Mi. 94) (Mi. 148 B) [ . ]
This stamp offered with Double Overprint, Rudolf Steltzer auction, Oct.2006, reserve price Euros 300.-

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DANZIG (Free City)

The free city of Danzig was a product of the Versailles Conference and a flashpoint exploited politically by Hitler in the 1930s. See online sources such as Wikipedia for more on the complex background to these issues. The city today is Gdansk in Poland - with another historical claim to fame, that of the trades union Solidarinosc in the Gdansk shipyards, which may be viewed as the birthplace of the movements which eventually led to the disintegration of the Soviet empire.

stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin Danzig Strassenbahn

1920 : Optd. Danzig in Black in Germanic Script
1 Mark (optd on Litho, Mi. A113) (Mi. 8) [ . ]
- ditto- pair, one without overprint (Mi. 8 F) . ]

1M25 dark-to-blackish opal green (Mi. 9 a) [ . ]
- ditto - Dark Green (Mi. 9 b) [ . ]

1M50 yellow-brown to orange-brown (Mi. 10) [ . ]

stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin Danzig Strassenbahn

1920 : Optd. Danzig and thick bar in RED
1 Mark (optd on recess-engraved, Germany Mi. 94 B II) (Mi. 48) [ . ]
- ditto - Overprint Double (Mi. 48 DD) [ . ]

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EASTERN MILITARY COMMAND AREA

stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin Postgebiet ob Ost Strassenbahn

1916 : Overprinted Postgebeit / Ob. Ost in black.
1 Mark (optd on recess-printed Mi. 94) 26 x 17 perforation holes [ . ]
- ditto - 25 x 17 perforation holes [ . ]

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GERMAN OCCUPATION OF BELGIUM (First World War)

stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin German Occupation of Belgium Strassenbahn

Note for this area: All the stars in the surcharges for Belgium are 'balanced' at their base, i.e.on a single point. For further explanation on this subject, see also the notes and footnotes below German P.O.'s in China and the Western Military Command Area.

1914 : Optd. 1 Fr.25C. / Belgien Centimes expressed as 'C.' and 'Fr.' for Franc. Opt in Black.
1Fr.25C./1 Mark ('Fr' for Franc, optd on engraved, Mi.94) (Mi.8) [ . ]
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stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin German Occupation of Belgium Strassenbahn

1916-18 : Optd. 1F.25Cent. / Belgien Centimes expressed as 'Cent.' and 'f.' for Franc. Alignment of surcharge value with base of stars varies.
1916-18: 1F.25C./1 Mark (optd. on Mi.94). Value below stars 26x17 holes (Mi.23 I A) [ . ]
- ditto - Value below stars again but 25x17 perforation holes (Mi.23 I B) [ . ]

1916-18: 1F.25C./1 Mark (optd. on Mi.94) Value now aligned with stars (Mi. 23 II) [ . ]

stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin German Occupation of Belgium ERROR 2f50/1M Strassenbahn

1916-18 : Optd. 2F.50Cent. / Belgien . Printed and Issued in error.

1916-18 : ERROR : 2F50 Cent/1 Mark. [ . ]
Only one sheet of 20 stamps was produced in error and the stamps were sold at Charleroi. 13 copies are known to have survived, all used. Catalogue Officiel Belge in 2008 : Catalogue Number: OC-23Er (cv. Euros 20,000.00)

Note: For stamps surcharged in similar fashion but without the word 'Belgien', see under Western Military Command Area.

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GERMAN POST OFFICES IN CHINA

stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin German Post Offices in China Strassenbahn

1901 : Overprinted : China in Black
1 Mark (optd. on Mi.62, inscribed REICHSPOST) (Mi.24) [ . ]
- ditto - special printing with ' i ' of ' China ' like a comma (Mi.VII k). Unissued - Rare [ . ]

(1905) 1 Mark (optd in Latin script on Mi. 94, inscribed DEUTSCHES REICH) (Mi. VIII j). [ . ]

This last stamp issued only in Berlin in tiny numbers.
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On the remaining issues for China, there is a six-pointed star either side of the new value. These are normally orientated such that they rest (at their base) on two points; some stamps, however, are found with one of the stars 'balanced' on a single point and these are indicated below, where they exist, as 'left star on point' or 'right star on point'.

Another feature of nearly all the stamps with this surcharge is that the new value, ' ½ Dollar ' , is not centred, but located much nearer to the right star.

stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin German Post Offices in China Strassenbahn
Above, left to right: Normal, Left Star on One Point, Right Star on One Point.

1905 : Surcharged * ½ Dollar * / China on UNWATERMARKED stamps
½ Dollar / 1 Mark (optd. on Mi. 78Aa) 26x17 perforation holes (Mi. 34A) [ . ]
- ditto - left star on point (Mi. 34 I A) [ . ]
- ditto - right star on point (Mi. 34 I A) [ . ]

½ Dollar / 1 Mark (optd. on Mi. 78 B) 25x16 perforation holes (Mi. 34B) [ . ]
- ditto - left star on point (Mi. 34 I B) [ . ]
- ditto - right star on point (Mi. 34 I B) [ . ]

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stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin German Post Offices in China Strassenbahn
Above (left to right): ½ Dollar right of centre; ½ Dollar centred (example shown with right star on one point).

1905-19 : Surcharged * ½ Dollar * / China on WATERMARKED stamps
½ Dollar / 1 Mark carmine-red on white paper (optd. on Mi. 94 A I) ½ Dollar to right, 26x17 perforation holes (Mi.44A I b)** [ . ]

½ Dollar / 1 Mark red on greyish wartime paper (optd on Mi.94 B II) 25x17 holes, ½ Dollar centred (Mi. 44 B IIa) [ . ]
- ditto - right star on point (Mi. 44 B II aa) [ . ]

½ Dollar / 1 Mark red on greyish wartime paper 25x17 holes, ½ Dollar to right, white gum (optd on Mi.94 B II) (Mi.44 B I a) [ . ]
- ditto - as above but dark red with yellow gum (Mi. 44 B I b) [ . ]

** Note: stamp marked ** above also exists with a 9mm instead of a 9.5mm spacing between the lines of surcharge (Mi.44A I a)

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GERMAN POST OFFICES IN MOROCCO

stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin German Post Offices in Morocco stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin Deutsche Postämten in Marocco stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin Deutsche Auslandspostämter Marokko stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin Deutsche Auslandspostämter Marokko
In the 1900 issue (left 2 scans), the feet of the letter 'M' meet the upstrokes almost at a right angle (90 degrees).
In the 1903 issue (right 2 scans), the feet of the letter 'M' are tapered upwards to meet the upstrokes.

1900 : Surcharged Marocco 1 Pes. 25 cts. Marocco 'M' as shown above at left.
1 Pes 25 / 1 Mark Red (optd on Mi. 63a) (Mi.16 I) [ . ]

1903 : Surcharged Marocco 1 Pes. 25 cts. Marocco, 'M' as shown above at right.
1 Pes 25 / 1 Mark Red (shades) (optd on Mi. 63a) (Mi.16 IIa) [ . ]
1 Pes 25 / 1 Mark Brownish-carmine (optd on Mi. 63 b) (Mi.16 IIb) [ . ]

stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin Deutsche Auslandspostämter Marocco Marokko
1905/06 issues inscribed 'Marocco'. 1911-1919 issues inscribed 'Marokko'.

1905 : Surcharged 'Marocco' etc. in gothic script on UNWATERMARKED stamps.
1 Pes 25 / 1 Mark Carmine-red (optd on Mi. 78A) 26x17 perforation holes (Mi. 30A) [ . ]

1 Pes 25 / 1 Mark Carmine-red (optd on Mi. 78B) 25x16 perforation holes (Mi. 30B) [ . ]

1906 : Surcharged 'Marocco' etc. in gothic script on WATERMARKED stamps.
1 Pes 25 / 1 Mark Carmine-red (optd on Mi. 94 A I) (Mi. 43) [ . ]

1911-19 : Surcharged 'Marokko' etc. in gothic script
1 Pes 25 / 1 Mark Red on whitish paper (optd on Mi. 94 A I) (Mi. 55A) [ . ]
1 Pes 25 / 1 Mark red on greyish wartime paper with shiny surcharge (optd on Mi. 94 B II)(Mi. 55 B a) [ . ]
- ditto but with matt surcharge (Mi. 55 B b) [ . ]

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GERMAN POST OFFICES IN THE TURKISH EMPIRE

stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin German Post Offices in Turkey stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin Deutsche Postämten in Turkei stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin Deutsche Auslandspostämter Turkei stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin Deutsche Auslandspostämter Turkei
1900 Issue (left) with pointed 'A'. 1902 issue (right): 'A' with a 'roof'.

1900 : Surcharged 5 PIASTER 5 (in capital letters) 'A' with pointed top
5 Pi / 1 Mark Red (optd. on Mi. 63a) (Mi. 20 I a) [ . ]
- ditto - but Brownish-carmine (optd on Mi. 63b) - rare (Mi. 20 I b) [ . ]
- ditto - but Brownish-rose - rare (Mi. 20 I c) [ . ]

Note: The base of the word 'PIASTER' is usually level with the top of the figures ' 5 '. but may also be found in higher and lower positions.

1902 : Surcharged 5 PIASTER 5 (in capital letters) 'A' topped with a horizontal line (roof). This surcharge was applied to a special printing of the 1 Mark, for use in Turkey, inscribed REICHSPOST.
5 Pi / 1 Mark Red (shades) (Mi. 20 II a) [ . ]
- ditto - but Brownish-carmine (Mi. 20 II b) [ . ]

stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin Deutsche Auslandspostämter Turkei
1905 : Surcharged 5 Piaster 5 in gothic script on UNWATERMARKED stamps
5 Pi / 1 Mark Carmine-red 26x17 perforation holes (optd on Mi. 78 A) (Mi. 32 A) [ . ]
- ditto - but 25x16 perforation holes (optd. on Mi. 78 B) (Mi. 32 B) [ . ]

1907 : Surcharged 5 Piaster 5 in gothic script on WATERMARKED stamps
5 Pi / 1 Mark Carmine-red (optd on Mi94 A I) (Mi. 44) [ . ]

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MARIENWERDER - Plebiscite Issues

stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin Marienwerder Plebiscite

1920 : Overprinted Commission / Interalliée / Marienwerder
1 Mark Red (optd. on engraved stamp, Mi. 94 B) (Mi. 20) [ . ]
- ditto - Overprint Inverted (Mi. 20 K) [ . ]

stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin Marienwerder Plebiscite stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin Marienwerder Plebiscite stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin Marienwerder Plebiscite

1920 : Overprinted COMMISSION / INTERALLIEE / MARIENWERDER in non-serif block capitals
1 Mark Red (optd. in black on Mi. 94 B II) Not Issued ( MI. 21 I ) [ . ]
See Note after next listing

1920 : Overprinted COMMISSION / INTERALLIEE / MARIENWERDER in angular serifed capitals
1 Mark Red (optd. in BLACK on Mi. 94 B II) Not Issued ( MI. 21 II a) [ . ]

1 Mark Red (optd. in
RED on Mi. 94 B II) Not Issued ( MI. 21 II b) [ . ]
Note: Mi 21 I and 21 IIa/b come from official proof sheets. Of the three stamps above, only Mi.21 IIa is priced in used condition in the catalogue, although even this stamp appears only to have been released in Berlin, not in Marienwerder.

stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin Marienwerder Plebiscite

1920 : Overprinted Commission / Interalliée / Marienwerder on Lithographed stamps.
1 Mark Red (optd. on Mi. A 113) (Mi. 26) [ . ]
The Michel Deutschland-Spezial catalogue lists the same three plate flaws for this stamp as for Germany Mi. A 113.

1 Mk.25 Green (optd. on Mi. 113) (Mi. 27) [ . ]
1 Mk.50 Yellow-brown to Brown (shades) (optd. on Mi. 114) (Mi. 28) [ . ]

Shades: You will notice from the scan that there are pronounced shades of the 1M50. However, whilst the different shades are indicated in Michel, they are not given separate sub-numbers, so we have not provided a separate listing. On other stamps of Germany and territories in the Hauptpostamt Berlin design, less distinct shades are sometimes given sub-numbers. We have generally adhered to the Michel level of 'recognition' of shades in this article.

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MEMEL - German district under Allied Ocupation 1918-23

stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin : Memel under Allied Occupation 1918-1923

1920 : Overprinted Memelgebiet in black
1 Mark (optd. on engraved Mi. 94 B II) 25x17 perforation holes (Mi. 9)[ . ]
- ditto - but with inverted ' b ' (Mi. 9 II ) [ . ]
- ditto - but optd. on Mi. 94 A II with 26x17 perforation holes (Mi. 9 I ) [ . ]

1 Mk 25 Green (shades) (Mi. 10)[ . ]

1 Mk 50 Yellow-brown to bright orange-brown (Mi. 11 a) [ . ]
- ditto - bright brown-orange (Mi. 11 b) [ . ]
- ditto - dark to blackish brown-ochre (Mi. 11 c) [ . ]

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SAAR

The Saar territory was placed under French administration in 1920 by the Treaty of Versailles for a 15-year period after which there was to be a plebiscite. In 1935, the population elected to rejoin Germany.

stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin Saar 1920 Strassenbahn

1920 : Overprinted Sarre in black:
1 Mark Carmine-Red to Red, 25x17 perforation holes (optd on Mi. 94) (Mi. 17 A) [ . ]
- ditto - variety pointed 'a' in 'Sarre ' (Mi. 17 A IV) [ . ]

1 Mark Carmine-Red to Red 26x17 perforation holes (Mi. 17 B) [ . ]
- ditto - variety pointed 'a' in 'Sarre ' (Mi. 17 B IV) [ . ]

Note: Further specialised varieties, including double and inverted overprints, all rare, are listed in the Michel Deutschland-Spezial catalogue.
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stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin Saar 1920 Strassenbahn stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin Saar 1920 Strassenbahn

1920 : Overprinted SAARGEBIET in black :
1 Mk 25 Green (Mi. 41) [ . ]
- ditto - Inverted Overprint (Mi. 41 K) [ . ]

1 Mk 50 Brown (Mi. 42) [ . ]
- ditto - Inverted Overprint (Mi. 42 K) [ . ]
- ditto - Overprint à cheval [ . ]

The overprint à cheval is not listed in Michel and is reported to be unexpertised.

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UPPER SILESIA - Plebiscite Issue

stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin C.I.H.S. Upper Silesia Oberschlesien Strassenbahn

1920 Issue of the Inter-Allied Commission : Overprinted in blue C.I.H.S. in a circle
1 Mark Carmine-red (optd on Mi. 94 B II) (Mi.17) [ . ]
Note: Michel renumbers the territory from Mi.1 for this French/Allied Commission issue. This is a rare stamp, issued by the French Occupation Authority, not to be confused with the regular public postal service 15pf, Mi. 17, of the Upper Silesia standard issues.

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WESTERN MILITARY COMMAND AREA : GERMAN POST OFFICES

stamps Briefmarken Hauptpostamt Berlin Deutsche Auslandspostämter Turkei
Left stamp with surcharge value aligned below stars. Right stamp aligned centrally.

1916 : Overprinted * 1F.25 Cent. * in black. Stars 'balanced' on one point. All are overprinted on Mi. 94.
1 F.25 / 1 Mark. Value aligned below stars, 26x17 perforation holes (Mi. 11 I A) [ . ]
- ditto - but 25x17 perforation holes (Mi. 11 I B) [ . ]

1 F.25 / 1 Mark with value now now centred between stars (Mi. 11 II) [ . ]
- ditto - var. Left star 'balanced' on two points (Mi. 11 II F) [ . ]

Note: For an explanation of the orientation of the stars, see under German P.O.'s in China. Note that whereas, for China, most stamps have the stars balanced on two points (balanced on one point being the variety), the opposite is true for the Western Military Command Area.

We should like to acknowledge the assistance of Jeremy Rayner in providing useful evidence with regard to the design detail of these stamps.

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